CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES

Child Developmental Theories

chilchild

What Is Child Development?

Have you ever wondered how you learned to crawl and then walk? How about language? How in the world do human beings learn to talk? Developmental psychologists seek to answer these types of questions.

Child development refers to the process through which human beings typically grow and mature from infancy through adulthood. The different aspects of growth and development that are measured include physical growth, cognitive growth, and social growth. Child development focuses on the changes that take place in humans as they mature from birth to about age 17.

When babies arrive in the world, they are tiny, helpless people who depend entirely on adults to take care of all their needs and wants. Somehow, with the proper loving nurturing and care over the next 22 years, they grow to become independent adults who can take care of themselves and others. The journey from infancy to adulthood is an amazing time when children soak up everything in the world around them and mix it with the qualities they are born with in order to mature bit by bit, in every way.

Over the years, people who study children have created theories to explain how children develop. While these theorists realize that every child is special and grow in his or her unique way, they also have recognized that there are general patterns children tend to follow as they grow up, and they have documented these patterns in their theories. This part will cover child developmental theory and applications such as parenting skills, will attempt to explain these fascinating but detailed theories so as to make them more understandable. Specifically, this part will outline the various areas, or channels, of child development that have been recognized, to explain how children tend to develop through each of these channels over time, and to state in simple language the observations of the child development field’s most important theorists.

 Developmental channels and Theories of development

First, it is important to understand that children have to grow and develop in many different areas in order to become healthy, happy, productive members of adult society. There are four main areas or channels in which children grow: physical, psychological and cognitive, social and emotional, and sexuality and gender identity.

First, the physical channel is most obvious. Children’s bodies grow in height and weight over the years and change appearance during puberty. Children also develop certain physical abilities during their progression towards adulthood, including crawling, walking, running and (possibly) writing or shooting a basketball.

Secondly, children also develop psychologically and cognitively as their brains absorb more information and they learn how to use that information.

Literally, children have to learn how to think on purpose and to process or organize all the information that comes to them from the environment. They must learn how to solve problems, to talk, and to complete mental tasks such as remembering telephone numbers or using computers.

Thirdly, children grow socially and emotionally. They learn how to interact, play, work, and live with other people such as family, friends, teachers, and employers. They learn how to understand both their own feelings and others’ emotions. They also learn ways of dealing with strong emotions. In order to function well as independent adults, children must develop a sense of self-esteem as they go through the long process of figuring out what shape their identity, or who they are, will take. They develop a sense of morality as they learn the difference between right and wrong.

Finally, children have to develop sexually and form a gender identity. This developmental channel is unique because it spans developments across the other physical, psychological, and social channels. Early on, children learn how their bodies work and look and what it means to be a boy or a girl; they learn how boys and girls are different. As they grow older and enter adolescence and puberty, they continue to learn how their bodies work sexually and how to responsibly handle their sexuality so as to balance their sexual desires and appropriate behavior. They continue to decide for themselves what it means to be masculine or feminine throughout their lifespan.

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES MILESTONES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Child Development Stages vs. Continuous Development

Different theorists have come to different conclusions concerning how exactly children develop across the various developmental channels. Some theorists believe that children develop smoothly and continuously, but other theorists believe that children develop more discretely in a series of stages, each of which is fairly stable.

Theorists who believe children grow continuously believe that kids constantly add new lessons and skills on top of old lessons and skills as they get older. They believe that children grow at a steady, uniform speed. Even though parents can’t see it with their eyes, children are growing all the time right in front of them. Their bodies make new cells. Their minds learn new skills as they play and interact with other people every day.

On the other hand, theorists who believe children grow discontinuously believe children grow in stages as they seem to develop chunks of abilities and to experience events at certain times in life. To some parents, it may seem that their children learn to do things all of the sudden, like when a baby goes from only being able to crawl to being able to toddle around on two feet almost overnight. Or, parents of young teenagers may say that they were amazed how their children went from thinking that kids of the opposite sex had “cooties” to constantly daydreaming about them. It seems as if these kids are growing lots in spurts at special times and then are not growing so fast for a while in between the spurts.

Both camps, continuous development and staged development, are correct in its own way, of course. While it is true that development is a continuous process that never stops, it is also true that there are stages to growth and those developments unfold at predictable times across the life span. The real difference between the two camps is likely the degree of magnification that each applies to its study, with the stage theorists taking a more distant but broader stance and the continuous theorists viewing things from up close.

This chapter will present child development as though it happens in stages. By thinking about stages, child development can be summarized in general groupings that can be more easily understood.

Developmental Stages and Milestones of Child Development

Often, developmental stages are defined by milestones. A milestone is a sort of marker that tells you where you are while traveling. The term is drawn from literal stone markers that were used to mark the passage of each mile on early roads. Today, the term milestone is used more figuratively, to indicate that a developmental stage has been achieved. Often, special milestones mark children’s accomplishments, such as walking in infancy and entering school in early childhood, and these milestones can help

Mark children’s movement inside and between developmental stages.

Children build new skills and developments on top of old skills and developments from stage to stage; each stage is cumulative. A child is able to run bases in a game of baseball in the middle childhood phase because she was first able to walk near the end of her infancy stage.

Entry and exit from the various developmental stages tends to occur at particular ages. Often, a child’s stage of development can be figured out by a child’s age because children generally experience the same stages at the same ages. However a child’s age only provides a clue as to his stage; it does not determine it. Every child develops at his or her own speed. It is the tasks and skills children master that truly identify what stage they are in. Because of this, different children of the same age can be expected to be at different developmental stages.

Children’s development does not happen uniformly, but rather, it progresses along at its own rate. Just because one child is potty trained at age three and his neighbor is potty trained at age three and a half does not mean that one is brighter than the other. Furthermore, children can develop the different channels at different rates. For example, a twelve-year-old’s body may have already gone through puberty and look like adolescence’s body, but that child may not have the cognitive and social abilities of an adolescent quite yet. It will take a little longer for their mind to catch up with her body.

Keep this lack of developmental sameness in mind as you read the chapter in this book. Whenever a document suggests ages that children reach specific milestones, keep in mind that these are general average ages that research has found children develop these skills. In reality, children reach milestones across a wide range of ages. Sometimes children will appear to even skip an entire developmental stage in some channels as they advance quickly in a short amount of time.

Also keep in mind that there are some situations in which children become severely inhibited and unable to reach certain milestones within an acceptable time frame. Developmental delays in a child’s functioning caused by disease, injury, mental disability, problems developing in the womb, environmental reasons, trauma or unknown causes can keep some children from developing properly or can even cause children to regress and go backward into some stages in some channels.

 Sensitive periods in child development

In order to understand how children move between stages, it’s important to understand how children take in stimuli from the environment and use it to grow. Most theorists agree that there are periods in children’s lives in which they become biologically mature enough to gain certain skills that they could not have easily picked up prior to that maturation. For example, research has shown that babies and toddlers’ brains are more flexible with regard to learning to understand and use language than are older children’s brains.

Children are ready and open to develop certain things during specific stages; however, it doesn’t just happen. Instead, they need proper environmental stimuli to develop these abilities. For example, babies have the ability to grow in length and weight in amazing amounts during the first year, but if they’re not fed and nurtured enough during that time, they will not have the tools and building blocks to grow and will not grow and thrive. This is why it’s so important for parents and caregivers to understand how their children are growing in all ways and channels and to know what stimuli, or stuff, they need to give their children to help them thrive.

From time to time children without any cognitive or physical problems at birth may not be able to develop certain milestones during the stage or time period they are most receptive. There may be an injury, illness, caregiver neglect or abuse, or a shortage of needs such as food or medical care, that make it difficult for a child to absorb all the basic building blocks and stimulation they need to gain certain abilities at certain times in life. When this occurs, affected children will generally have a harder time gaining those abilities even if they later get special attention and resources designed to help them compensate. It’s like children have a window of opportunity when they are ready to grow in certain ways if they have the right stuff and tools in their environment. When that window closes, it will never be as easy to grow in those ways again. Theorists disagree about how important it is for children to have that special stimuli at each growing stage in order to reach their milestones. Some theorists call these times critical periods, but other theorists call them sensitive periods.

The difference between critical periods and sensitive periods is subtle. Theorists who believe in critical periods believe that children who do not get special stimulation during their window of receptivity are going to be “stuck” forever and never gain the abilities they should have gained in that period. However, other theorists believe that those very sensitive times in a child’s life are just sensitive periods. They agree that children who do not get the right nurturing at the right times to jumpstart their developmental potential are going to have problems later in life, but they do not think that this inability to develop is permanent.

For example, infancy is the time when children first learn they can trust an adult or parent to take care of all their needs, keep them safe, and give them love. Some infants live in orphanages where there are far too many babies for the few nurses and staff members to take care of them. These children go through their first years with hardly any touch or affection that would teach them to trust and to show affection to caregivers. If these children are eventually adopted by a loving family later on in their childhood, they often have trouble adjusting to having an affectionate, loving parent. There have been many cases in which children who start out in that kind of orphanage environment never gain the ability to show affection and emotion toward family or even the ability to show remorse or compassion toward other people, no matter how loving and nurturing their adoptive family was being in their middle childhood and on. Such a child’s ability to trust and love would have essentially become “stuck” in infancy, even though the rest of their body continued to grow. The question of whether the critical period idea or the sensitive period idea is more correct boils down to whether this stuckness can be overcome, in full or in part, in the child’s later life.

Theorists who support sensitive periods believe that while it will be far more difficult for the child and the child’s teachers and caregivers to learn what was not learned during the window of opportunity, these children can still develop the missing capacities and skills later that they did not develop earlier. While some children do seem to get stuck permanently, there is evidence to support the sensitive period idea as well.

Some children born in the same understaffed orphanages who are later adopted do go on to learn to love, to trust, and to show affection to their family and friends. In these situations, the families have to have extreme patience and perseverance as they nurture these older children because they are not going to be able to learn that trust and love as fast and as easily as infants.

However, it’s also important to remember that critical or sensitive periods can also affect children in other ways than just neglect or deprivation. For example, there is a critical or sensitive period for language acquisition that occurs during infancy. Children begin learning how to understand and create language from the time they’re born. They will absorb and copy the language they hear all around them during that critical or sensitive period early in life. However, for many different reasons, children, and adults, may leave their original home and move to a new country or region where people speak a different language. They will need to learn to understand and create the new language, even though they were not exposed to it during that early important period. However, while it will take more time and special tutoring, many children, and adults, can learn a new language proficiently later in life. (different parts of the brain are used for sensitive period learning, vs. later learning, but both can get the job done)

MAJOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES AND THEORISTS

Though many scientists and researchers have approached the study of child development over the last hundred or so years, only a few of the theories that have resulted have stood the test of time and have proven to be widely influential. Among this core group of theories are five that will serve as the basis for the documents in this book. These are:

Freud’s psychosexual stage theory

Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory

Kohlberg’s moral understanding stage theory

Piaget’s cognitive development stage theory

Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory

Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages of development theory

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Viennese doctor who came to believe that the way parents dealt with children’s basic sexual and aggressive desires would determine how their personalities developed and whether or not they would end up well-adjusted as adults. Freud described children as going through multiple stages of sexual development, which he labeled Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital.

In Freud’s view, each stage focused on sexual activity and the pleasure received from a particular area of the body. In the oral phase, children are focused on the pleasures that they receive from sucking and biting with their mouth. In the Anal phase, this focus shifts to the anus as they begin toilet training and attempt to control their bowels. In the Phallic stage, the focus moves to genital stimulation and the sexual identification that comes with having or not having a penis.

During this phase, Freud thought that children turn their interest and love toward their parent of the opposite sex and begin to strongly resent the parent of the same sex. He called this idea the Oedipus Complex as it closely mirrored the events of an ancient Greek tragic play in which a king named Oedipus manages to marry his mother and kill his father. The Phallic/Oedipus stage was thought to be followed by a period of Latency during which sexual urges and interest were temporarily nonexistent. Finally, children were thought to enter and remain in a final Genital stage in which adult sexual interests and activities come to dominate.

Another part of Freud’s theory focused on identifying the parts of consciousness. Freud thought that all babies are initially dominated by unconscious, instinctual and selfish urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the Id. As babies attempt and fail to get all their whims met, they develop a more realistic appreciation of what is realistic and possible, which Freud called the “Ego”. Over time, babies also learn about and come to internalize and represent their parents’ values and rules. These internalized rules, which he called the “Super-Ego”, are the basis for the the developing child’s conscience that struggles with the concepts of right and wrong and works with the Ego to control the immediate gratification urges of the Id.

By today’s rigorous scientific standards, Freud’s psychosexual theory is not considered to be very accurate. However, it is still important and influential today because it was the first stage development theory that gained real attention, and many other theorists used it as a starting place.

Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory

Erik Erikson (1902-1994) used Freud’s work as a starting place to develop a theory about human stage development from birth to death. In contrast to Freud’s focus on sexuality, Erikson focused on how peoples’ sense of identity develops; how people develop or fail to develop abilities and beliefs about themselves which allow them to become productive, satisfied members of society. Because Erikson’s theory combines how people develop beliefs psychologically and mentally with how they learn to exist within a larger community of people, it’s called a ‘psychosocial’ theory.

Erikson’s stages are, in chronological order in which they unfold: trust versus mistrust; autonomy versus shame and doubt; initiative versus guilt; industry versus inferiority; identity versus identity confusion; intimacy versus isolation; generativity versus stagnation; and integrity versus despair. Each stage is associated with a time of life and a general age span. For each stage, Erikson’s theory explains what types of stimulation children need to master that stage and become productive and well-adjusted members of society and explains the types of problems and developmental delays that can result when this stimulation does not occur.

For example, the first psychosocial stage is trust versus mistrust, and it spans from birth to about age one year. During this phase, if children are consistently provided all their basic needs such as food, clean diapers, warmth, and loving affection and soothing from caregivers, they will learn that they can trust other people in their environment to love them and to take care of them, and they will believe the world is good. If infants are neglected and not given these things consistently or if they are taken care of roughly and unpredictably, they will learn to question their caretakers and to believe that others will not always be there to support them when it’s needed.

Learning to trust others is the first necessary step to learning how to have loving, supportive relationships with others and to have a positive self-image.

The second stage, autonomy versus shame and doubt, spans ages one to three years. When children are autonomous, they feel confident that they can make their own choices and decisions and that they will be positive experiences. Young children become autonomous when caregivers are supportive and give children the safe space to make their own decisions and to experiment with their bodies and problem-solving skills without shaming or ridiculing the child. When children feel shame and doubt, they believe that they are not capable of making valid decisions and not capable of doing everyday tasks. This will begin stunting a positive self-esteem as these small children start seeing themselves as “stupid.”

The third stage, initiative versus guilt, spans ages three to six years. When children develop initiative, they continue to develop their self-concept and gain a desire to try new things and to learn new things while being responsible for their actions to some extent. If caregivers continue to give children a safe space to experiment and appropriate stimuli to learn, the children will continue to find their purpose. However, if caregivers try to create too many strict boundaries around what children can do and to force too much responsibility on kids, children will feel extreme guilt for their inability to complete tasks perfectly.

This is just a taste of Erickson’s ideas. Hopefully, these paragraphs will help explain his way of thinking and organizing development. The rest of Erikson’s stages will be outlined in detail in future documents in this book as they become age-related.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral understanding stage theory

Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) described three stages of moral development which described the process through which people learn to discriminate right from wrong and to develop increasingly sophisticated appreciations of morality. He believed that his stages were cumulative; each built off understanding and abilities gained in prior stages. According to Kohlberg, moral development is a lifelong task, and many people fail to develop the more advanced stages of moral understanding.

Kohlberg’s first ‘preconventional’ level describes children whose understanding of morality is essentially only driven by consequences. Essentially, “might makes right” to a preconventional mind, and they worry about what is right in wrong so they don’t get in trouble. Second stage ‘conventional’ morality describes people who act in moral ways because they believe that following the rules is the best way to promote good personal relationships and a healthy community. A conventional morality person believes it is wrong to steal not just because he doesn’t want to get punished but also because he doesn’t want his friends or family to be harmed.

The final ‘postconventional‘ level describes people whose view of morality transcend what the rules or laws say. Instead of just following rules without questioning them, ‘postconventional‘ stage people determine what is moral based on a set of values or beliefs they think are right all the time. For example, during the Vietnam War, many Americans who were drafted to be soldiers opposed the war on moral grounds and fled to Canada rather than fight. Even though this behavior was against the law, these people decided that these particular laws did not follow the higher rules they believed in, and they chose to follow their higher rules instead of the law.

Jean Piaget’s cognitive development stage theory

Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1990), created a cognitive-developmental stage theory that described how children’s ways of thinking developed as they interacted with the world around them. Infants and young children understand the world much differently than adults do, and as they play and explore, their mind learns how to think in ways that better fit with reality.

Piaget’s theory has four stages: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. During the Sensorimotor stage, which often lasts from birth to age two, children are just beginning to learn how to learn. Though language development, and thus thought, does begin during this time, the more major tasks occurring during this period involve children figuring out how to make use of their bodies. They do this by experiencing everything with their five senses, hence “sensory,” and by learning to crawl and then walk, point and then grasp, hence, “motor.”

During the preoperational stage, which often lasts from ages two though seven, children start to use mental symbols to understand and to interact with the world, and they begin to learn language and to engage in pretend play. In the concrete operational stage that follows, lasting from ages seven through eleven, children gain the ability to think logically to solve problems and to organize information they learn. However, they remain limited to considering only concrete, not abstract, information because at this stage the capability for abstract thought isn’t well developed yet. Finally, during the formal operational stage, which often lasts from age eleven on, adolescents learn how to think more abstractly to solve problems and to think symbolically, e.g., about things that aren’t really there concretely in front of them. As is the case with Erikson and Kohlberg, Piaget’s ideas will be developed in greater depth in future documents.

Urie Bronfenbrenner ecological system theory

Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) developed the ecological systems theory to explain how everything in a child and the child’s environment affects how a child grows and develops.

He labeled different aspects or levels of the environment that influence children’s development, including the:

Microsystem.

Mesosystem.

Exosystem.

Macrosystem.

The Microsystem

The microsystem is the small, immediate environment the child lives in. Children’s microsystems will include any immediate relationships or organizations they interact with, such as their immediate family or caregivers and their school or daycare.

How these groups or organizations interact with the child will have an effect on how the child grows ; the more encouraging and nurturing these relationships and places are, the better the child will be able to grow.

Furthermore, how a child acts or reacts to these people in the microsystem will affect how they treat her in return. Each child’s special genetic and biologically influenced personality traits, what is known as temperament , end up affecting how others treat them. This idea will be discussed further in a later chapters about child temperament.

The Mesosystem

Bronfenbrenner’s next level, the mesosystem, describes how the different parts of a child’s microsystem work together for the sake of the child.

For example, if a child’s caregivers take an active role in a child’s school, such as going to parent-teacher conferences and watching their child’s soccer games, this will help ensure the child’s overall growth. In contrast, if the child’s two sets of caretakers, mom with step-dad and dad with step-mom, disagree how to best raise the child and give the child conflicting lessons when they see him, this will hinder the child’s growth in different channels.

The Exosystem

The exosystem level includes the other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large affect on her, such as parents’ workplaces, extended family members , the neighborhood, etc.

For example, if a child’s parent gets laid off from work, that may have negative effects on the child if her parents are unable to pay rent or to buy groceries; however, if her parent receives a promotion and a raise at work, this may have a positive effect on the child because her parents will be better able to give her physical needs.

The Macro system

Bronfenbrenner’s final level is the macro system, which is the largest and most remote set of people and things to a child but which still has a great influence over the child .

The macrosystem includes things such as the relative freedoms permitted by the national government , cultural values, the economy , wars , etc. These things can also affect a child either positively or negatively.

Conclusion.

All of these theorists’ ideas will influence and inspire the coming chapters in this book the chapters will concern child development, both from theoretical perspectives, and also from applied perspectives, in the form of parenting skills coverage. Chapters cover four stages of child development, defined for the purpose of this book to be:

Infancy (covering birth to age two)

Early Childhood (covering ages two to seven)

Middle Childhood (covering ages seven to eleven)

Adolescence (covering ages eleven to twenty-two)

This breakdown of ages provides rough correspondence with the stage theories of Piaget, Erikson, and Bronfenbrenner too. Within each stage, a ‘theory’ document will describe how development typically proceeds through the major developmental channels, including physical, mental, emotional and social, and sexual developments. A second ‘applied’ document will address appropriate parenting skills in light of what is known about children’s development within each stage.

It’s important to remember that while these documents will make general statements about when developments occur in a child’s life, each child will nevertheless develop at his or her own speed, and that even within a given child, certain channels may progress faster than others. For example, a twelve-year-old may have the physical growth and change of an adolescent but mentally still be in the concrete operational stage. This is normal because often one aspect of a child’s being will mature faster than another. Most of the time, given the right nurturing and stimuli, everything will catch up in the end.

These ages are just an average and should be looked at as a general guide rather than a rule.

When babies are in infancy, they are changing from being totally dependent on caregivers to learning to walk, to talk, to play alongside others, and are realizing they are their individual selves. When children enter early childhood, they continue to improve their large and small motor skills as they run and move more smoothly. They also grow mentally and socially as they enter school and other places where they interact with children. During middle childhood, children continue to grow and improve physically, while also growing mentally as they attend school. They maintain friendships in large same-sex groups and begin forming ideas about gender roles and jobs. During adolescence, people go through puberty as their bodies mature and become capable to reproduce. Teens attempt to assert their individual identity while still needing rules and limits to continue to help them make good life decisions. During later adolescence, young adults begin the tasks of finding a life calling or job and of finding or creating their own next-generation family.

Even more milestones and more in-depth information will be explained in future articles. Hopefully, they will give you the tools that as a caregiver you need to give your children the best possible basis to grow and to succeed.

for more knowledge about child development and parenting follow this link grab your copy   https://www.spreesy.com/archileeslukonge/2 or send us an email via archileeslukonge@gmail.com

 

 

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PREPARING FOR THE BABY. STORY

Preparing and delivering for the baby: The story

baby

Get a look to a story of Zam whom i interviewed during a session at arch.center

And the moment that I have been anticipating for days, months, and years   even has come. I took a deep breath and pushed down my baby with own power while I followed my body. Before my breath finished, my baby came sliding out of me. While I exhaled, I quietly said that he is born. They put my son into my arms even before cutting his umbilical cord. He was warm, wet, soft, and smelled sweet. He screamed joyfully, and I thanked him repeatedly for giving me this wonderful experience. The doctors and nurses were looking on at that remarkable moment when our son joined our family, confused, happy, and teary eyed. They stared at us with questioning expressions because they had just watched a birth so vastly different from the fearful births they had witnessed in the past—fearfulness that resulted from the negative birth stories that have been handed down to women for years and have eroded their confidence and power regarding birth. How had it come to this?

 Forty weeks and 5 days into the pregnancy, my baby and I were still together. I felt his movements less now—they were smaller than they had been but stronger. My phone was ringing off the hook, at least 20 people calling me every day to ask if I have given birth and scaring me by saying things like, “What if something’s wrong with the baby?” My mother was waiting impatiently for her first grandson, constantly saying, “It’s high time the baby made an appearance.” I became so fed up, especially in the last 10 days of my pregnancy that in the pregnancy classes that I gave after my baby was born, I suggested to the mothers-to-be that they not tell anyone the approximate birth date to avoid similar experiences.

I made myself believe that my son would be born in the night, having heard somewhere that animals that sleep in the daytime birth in the night and vice versa (which seemed to show that privacy and protection are important in nature.) In the weeks and days leading up to my due date, I tried my best to go to sleep early every day so as not to be tired when I finally went into labor. I would fall asleep rubbing my abdomen and thinking, “Maybe I’ll smell you tonight baby.” But when morning came, I would wake to find my baby was still saying, “Good morning, mommy!” from my womb.

It was another such morning when I went to the toilet and saw the first thrilling sign that the birth was finally going to happen. My husband and my mother were home, but I said nothing to them because I wanted to stay at home until the contractions became more frequent. I put my hand on my abdomen and could feel uterine contractions, but they were not bothering me at all. We had a nice family breakfast, took a walk by the sea for 2 hours, and went to the market, and then I cleaned my house in a squatting position. (Knowing that squatting is one of the most appropriate positions during labor because it enables the baby to move more easily in the birth canal [ Balaskas, 1992 ], I was seeking any excuse to squat.)

That evening, I was feeling quite energetic and dynamic. At around 9:00 p.m., while we were all watching TV together, I fell asleep on the living room sofa. At 11 p.m., my mother woke me up to tell me to go to my bed, but by then I felt wide awake, so she went to bed herself—a relief to me because I was sure she would treat me like an invalid if she thought the birth was imminent. My husband was not sleepy either, so we decided to watch a documentary about dolphins giving birth. I told him that our baby could come to the world that day, but he just laughed and said, “The dolphin might be giving birth today, but you won’t.” Then he too decided to go to bed.

I was having contractions, but I would not have even noticed them had I not put my hand on my abdomen. I was also feeling some pressure on my perineum, but the contractions I had felt during the pregnancy had disturbed me more. I decided to take a shower, and the warm water combined with the smell of the shampoo made me feel great. I blow dried my hair, put on some nail polish, prepared the clothes I would wear to go to the hospital, and ate an apple. Then, I finally went to bed.

At around 2:00 a.m., I put my hand on my abdomen and tried to time my contractions, which by now were frequent and long lasting. Because of the stories of labor pains that I still had in my mind, however, I didn’t think they could be birth contractions. I switched on my relaxation recording. While I was relaxing my whole body, I suddenly felt nauseous and vomited. My husband and mother both woke up, and my husband said to me, “It cannot be time for birth, but perhaps something is wrong. We should go to the hospital.” We grabbed the already-packed bags, got in the car, and turned on an enjoyable song to listen to during the drive.

On the way, I continued with my breathing and relaxation exercises. I could sense an amazing cocktail of hormones flowing through my body. I had never felt so happy, energetic, and motivated. These were the last moments of my baby inside me, and we were enjoying it! Everybody was calm as we headed to the delivery room. It was 2:50 a.m. The team on night duty was sitting around eating a pizza. I told them, “Don’t trouble yourselves, it’s not time for the birth. We just came in for a checkup.” The on-duty doctor put a hand on my abdomen and said, “The contractions are severe. I think I should examine you.” I lay on the examination couch and he made a vaginal examination.

At that point, I collected myself and asked the personnel to make the head of the bed as upright as possible. Suddenly, just as I was about to stand up, I felt severe pressure on my perineum. At the same time, I felt like I would explode with excitement. Odent (2003) notes that with births where there is no intervention or fear, a sudden adrenaline rush can occur just before the fetal ejection reflex. This is exactly what happened in my birth. Overcome by a sensation like the thrill you get at the moment you parachute off a mountainside and shout out with joy at the top of your voice, I screamed uncontrollably.

Realizing that the doctor, my husband, and the nurse were all staring at me in amazement, I told them, “Everything’s okay, don’t worry. There is no pain, just a sudden adrenaline rush.” Odent (2003) notes that, with births where there is no intervention or fear, a sudden adrenaline rush can occur just before the fetal ejection reflex. This is what happened in my birth. I settled myself back onto the bed and felt the urge to push. My body position was as straight as possible. I took a deep breath and pushed my baby downward with all my power. “Push slowly,” my birth doctor warned me. “The baby’s coming too fast. I’ll have to do an episiotomy.” But I just could not slow myself down, and the episiotomy was done at the last moment. In my terms, it was a natural birth throughout, without any intervention other than the episiotomy. Is it still possible, therefore, to call this a natural birth? I think it is. It was completely natural because the intervention happened only when necessary.

Two or 3 weeks later, when I had the chance to make some time for myself and think about the birth, I wondered whether the episiotomy might have been unnecessary. After all, I had given myself regular perineal massages every day after the 30th week of my pregnancy specifically to avoid perineal laceration or an episiotomy, just as suggested by evidence-based practice (Berghella, Baxter, & Chauhan, 2008 ). I thought my perineum was ready for the birth. Why did they have to do an episiotomy? I had been in a squatting position, which is the most appropriate position for birth, and had pushed the baby by grasping and pulling my knees up toward me. The baby came out of my vagina very quickly both because I pushed my baby uncontrollably fast, and because of the fetal ejection reflex combined with an adrenaline rush. Perhaps if I had been in the “polar bear” position Mongan (2005) suggested for quick delivery, I would have been able to give birth without the need for an episiotomy.

I was in a state of shock after the delivery, unable to believe my baby was now in my arms. It was 3:15 a.m. Just 25 minutes had passed since I had gone into the delivery room. The birth was not the way some people had described it. It was totally painless, joyful, exciting, and quick. My baby was so good. At first, he greeted the world with loud screams, presumably because of the effects of the hormone cocktail, but he calmed down after he was cradled in my arms and heard me say, “Welcome, my baby. We have been waiting for you for so long. We love you so much, do not cry.” He began looking around curiously with his eyes wide open.

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Make me understand, family parenting and health

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ISBN 9781726688512

CONTENTS

About the author………………………………………..xii

Preface………………………………………………… …..xiv

Acknowledgement……………………………………..xvi

Introduction…………………………………………….xviii

What is this book for?…………………………………xx

PART 1 PREPARING FOR THE BABY, GETTING STARTED

Preparing for the baby: the story………………..25

Over view…………………………………………………26

Chapter 1:  Child developmental theories 21………………….…33

Introduction; overview of child development theories…34

Developmental channels and Theories of development…..35

Developmental Stages milestones of child development……36

Sensitive periods in child development…………………………..37

Major child development theories and theorists…………39

Sigmund freud’s psycho sexual stages of development theory………40

Erik erikson’s psycho social stage theory………………………………….….41

Lawrence kohlberg’s moral understanding stage theories…43

Jean piaget’s cognitive development stage theory………………….…45

Urie Bronfenbrenner ecological system theory………………………46

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….……48

PART 2 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING INFANTS (0-2 YEARS)

Chapter 2: How your baby grew and matures..……..56

Introduction……………………..…………….…….…56

Infancy Physical development……………………57

Infancy physical development. Motor skills…60

Infancy physical development. Gross motor…63

Infancy physical development. Fine motor …..65

Infancy physical development. Avera growth..69

Infancy cognitive development…………………..74

Infancy cognitive development. Language development…….77

Infancy Emotional/social development……….80

Emotional expression and understanding……85

Infancy emotional and social development….. 90

Social connections……………………………………..95

Infancy Sexuality and body awareness development……….98

Chapter 3:  Keeping your baby healthy and happy……….101

Introduction……………………………..………………102

Holding and Physical support…………………….103

Facilitating growth movement……………………105

Feeding and nutrition………………………………..107

How much to feed?……………………………………109

Expressing and storing Breast-feeding……….112

Selecting and preparing bottles ………………….114

Burping and spitting up…………………………….116

When and what Solid foods to introduce?……118

Feeding solids and how to feed solid foods…..121

How much to feed babies?………………………….124

Weaning …………………………………………………126

Elimination and how to diaper, and penis and cord car……..129

Sleeping, Bathing and soothing a crying baby130

Hygiene and dressing your baby…………………135

Well baby Checks and immunizations…………140

Common baby concern………………………………150

Nurturing children, discipline, baby safety…. 153

Conclusion……………………………………………….160

Chapter 4: Infant safety: Keeping your baby say

Introduction to infant safety…………………166

Playroom/nursery safety………………………..…168

Kitchen and bathroom safety……………………170

Fire/electrical, pet safety, and car safety………175

Out door safety and preparing for the worst…195

PART 3 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT (3-7 YEARS)

Chapter 5: Development during early childhood, toddler, and pre-school stages.

Introduction: development during early childhood…………205

Early childhood development average growth ……………….206

Physical development. Fine motor skills……210

Early childhood physical development. Toilet training…….215

Introduction……………………………………….….219

Early childhood cognitive development symbolic function……235

Early childhood cognitive development intuitive thought…………240

Early childhood cognitive development. Language development………243

Early childhood emotional and social development. …………244

Early childhood emotional . Reflective empath……….………247

Early childhood emotional  Aggression…….…249

Conclusion………………………………………….……250

Early childhood emotional  identity and self-esteem…………252

Early childhood emotional. Social connections

Early childhood moral development……………256

Early childhood gender identity and sexuality……………….257

Conclusion ………………………………………….…..258

Chapter 6: Parenting your toddler, preschooler

Early childhood Toilet training introduction

Introduction to parenting your toddler……….262

Early childhood feeding and nutrition…………265

Early childhood sleep ……………………………….267

Early childhood hygiene ……………………………269

Early childhood exercise……………………………273

Early childhood love and nurturing……………275

Early childhood, its important to encourage reading……………………………………………………279

Early childhood medical care…………………….281

Early childhood mental care………………………284

Early childhood safety……………………………….287

Coping with transitions in early childhood: Getting a new sibling …290

Coping with transition in early childhood. Going to day care…………295

Coping with transition. Starting pre-school or kindergarten ……302

Conclusion…………………………………………….310

Chapter 7: Early childhood toilet training…….318

Early childhood toilet training introduction..320

The right time to start toilet training. Children’s readiness.323

Family readiness and red flags…………………..327

Pre-toilet training in early childhood………….330

Preparing the space for toilet training in early childhood….335

Toilet training friendly friendly clothing ……340

Early childhood toilet training methods…….344

Conclusion………………………………………………347

How to deal with toilet training challenges? When traveling……….350

Constipation and fear of flushing………………355

Bed-wetting, encopresis and enuresis………..357

Conclusion………………………………………………359

Chapter 8: Disciplining your toddler, preschooler…….360

Preventing early childhood misbehavior before it happens………362

The use of choice in early childhood………….363

A step-by-step guide for how to discipline children 370

Natural and logical consequences in early children .375

Combining choice and consequences in early childhood……..379

Childhood time outs…………………………..….384

Spanking in early childhood………………………388

Lying in early childhood………………………….…390

Supportive communication in early childhood and discipline…………………………………………..392

Conclusion ………………………………….……….394

Chapter 9: Nurturing your toddler, preschooler………….395

Introduction ………………………………………397

Creating nurturing space in early childhood.400

Physical nurturing. Gross motor activities…..403

Physical nurturing fine motor activities ……405

Cognitive nurturing in early childhood………409

Social nurturing in early childhood…………..413

Emotional nurturing in early childhood………416

Cultural and spiritual nurturing in early……420

Nurturing at home and outside……………….…426

Conclusion. …………………………………….…….…430

PART 4 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (8-11 YEARS)………….……………..432

Chapter 10: Nurturing your middle childhood ………433

Introduction ……………………………….……………435

Child feeding and nutrition………………………..438

Components of healthy meals and importance of water…449

Child sleeping, and managing children’s ins……………..….…460

Child hygiene and appearance…………………..470

Preventive health care, dental and vision car, sun safety, ….481

Common childhood illnesses……………………490

Chapter 11: Middle children safety and education…………………..…511

Introduction…………………………………………514

Automobiles, biking safety, leaving children home alone, outdoor safety, swimming pool safety…………………….………………………….…520

Middle children education……………………….524

Introduction……………………………….………….528

Education and schools ……………………………530

Engaging with teachers, the school,and the educational proces…533

Helping children get their home work done.534

Handling school related discipline incidents 534

Chapter 12 Middle child discipline and guidance …………535

Introduction…………………………………………..537

Choices and consequences ………………………539

Grounding children and sticker charts………541

Children cores, nurturing and children’s need for privacy…544

Dealing with difficult middle childhood issues………….548

Introduction ………………………………….………558.

Dealing with life’s tough topics…………………565

Teaching in children social skills………………573

Cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs at home, …….577

Romantic crushes and questions about sex..582

Sibling rivalry, encouraging children to support one another …587

Bullying and peer abuse and prejudice………593

Conclusion ………………………………….………….595

PART 5   CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING ADOLESCENCE (12-24)

Chapter 13. Child development theory. Adolescence………606

What is adolescence?……………………………….608

An overview of adolescence development……612

Adolescence physical development……………620

Adolescence cognitive development…………..628

Adolescence emotional development…………634

Adolescence social development…………….660

Adolescence moral development……………….680

Adolescence sexual development………………695

Middle to late adolescence ages (15-22) the age of romance ….723

Conclusion……………………………………….……724

Chapter 14. Children and internet addiction in families….725

Introduction to Internet addiction……………726

Symptoms of Internet addiction……………….730

Children and media issues……………………….735

Types of media, its benefits and challenge…..765

Managing and controlling children media usage…770

Reference…………………………772

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Lukonge Achilees (Achilles)is highly experienced social worker, psychologist, Psychiatrist, Counselor/Therapist currently working with Pelletier teenage mothers foundation (PTMOF) helping over 100 vulnerable with the remarkable ability to create, discover, tell, treat and educate important social work articles that can teach us all the most important lessons in our families, health and our life. With Make me understand about family Parenting and health, he strives especially to help parents, children, students in social work learn how to nurture a health family. Providing them opportunities for getting help in matters concerning family, and to help students and parents understand their roles and responsibilities in upbringing a child, in a health environment.

Make me understand about family parenting and health is a must read for everyone in the family, and those working with children like care givers, teachers, guides and others fall in that category. Lukonge Achilees takes the reader on a wonderful journey, balancing all family and health sections, good therapeutic technique, and family empirical styles during the trip. Given that Lukonge Achilees elaborated aspects required in nurturing a health family, and any reader using this resource should increase their understanding of how family works, and how to raise good children, and how to stay safe and healthy in the family system.

Make me understand about family parenting and health is a fantastic book, well executed by a master! Achilees, systematically leads readers through every step of raising children, and provides examples for achieving a wide variety of specific goals.

 PREFACE

This first edition of the Handbook of Parenting and health appears at a time that is momentous in the history of parenting. The family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state offlux, question, and redefinition than perhaps ever before. We are witnessing the emergence of striking permutations on the theme of parenting: blended families, lesbian and gay parents, teen versus Fifties first-time moms and dads. One cannot but be awed on the biological front by technology that now renders postmenopausal women capable of childbearing and with the possibility of designing babies. Similarly, on the sociological front, single parenthood is a modern-day fact of life, adult–childdependency is on the rise, and parents are ever less certain of their roles, even in the face of rising environmental and institutional demands that they take increasing responsibility for their offspring.

The Handbook of Parenting is concerned with all facets of parenting. Despite the fact that most people become parents and everyone who has ever lived has had parents, parenting remains a most mystifying subject. Who is ultimately responsible for parenting? Does parenting come naturally, or must we learn how to parent? How do parents conceive of parenting? What does it mean to parent a preterm baby/infant (0-2years) parenting early childhood (3-7years) parenting middle childhood (8-11years) and parenting adolescents (12-24years)?

To be a younger or an older parent, or one who is divorced, disabled, or drug abusing? What do theories in psychology (psycho sexual stages of Sigmund frued, psycho social stages of Erik Erikson, moral understanding theory of Lawrence Kohlberg, Jean Piaget’s cognitive development stage theory, and Urie Bronfenbrenner ecological system theory for example) contribute to our understanding of parenting? What should parents do with each stage? For their children?

These are some of the questions addressed in this first edition of the Handbook of parenting… for this is a book on how to parents much as it is one on what being a parent is all about.

Put succinctly, parents create people. It is the entrusted and abiding task of parents to prepare their offspring for the physical, psychosocial, and economic conditions in which they will eventu-ally fare and, it is hoped, flourish. Amidst the many influences on child development, parents are the“final common pathway “to children’s development and stature, adjustment and success.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This journey would not have been possible without the support of my family, professors, and mentors, and friends. To my family, thank you for encouraging me in all of my pursuits and inspiring me to follow my dreams, iam especially grateful to my parents, who supported me emotionally and financially. I always knew that you believed in me and wanted the best for me. Thank you for teaching me that my job in life was to learn, to be happy, and to know and understand myself; only then could I know and understand others. Thank you my mother, Nakayemba Rose, for guiding me as a person, a social worker, psychologist and teacher to finish my degree and giving me an upper hand in this process of book writing

I must thank all social work Lecturers and professors at Muteesa 1 Royal university  who tought me all what I know in social science structures, thanks for showing me what it means to be a dedicated, each in their own unique way. Each of you have given of your time, energy, and expertise and iam richer for it: Lecturer Lwanga Edward Bita, Lecturer Luttamaguzi John Bosco, Dr. Tumukunde Aloysious, Prof. Mukiibi

I would like to give special thanks to my inspiring roll models, I owe a debt of gratitude to Lecturer Lwanga Edward Bita for his time and careful attention to detail in everything I know in social work. To teacher Lukwago Ibrah I thank him for his untiring support and guidance throughout my journey. To my Father Profesor Mutaawe Richard, To Mr. Luttamaguzi John Bosco, thank you for modling great teaching and furthering my thinking about Social work and family, Psychology, anthropology, social work theories, community rehabilitation, social work intervation, and many others, Mr. Lwanga E.Bita thanks for furthering my thinking about Sociology, and statistics in social research, Mr. Mukiibi Andrew Adrian thank you for furthering my thinking about Gender mainstreaming, Research Methodology. Dr. Tumukunde Aloysious you modeled me in Social work courses.

To my family, RODI family headed by Prof. Mutaawe Richard and Prof. Londo Johnson, you are the reason why I finished my studies, no words can describe your presence in my life, and may God bless you all.

To my mentors at a work place PTMOF, Maama Ptmof, Mrs. Solome Nanvule, Mrs. Namuwulya Alice, Nagawa Mariam, Nakulima Winnie, Nakaweesi Agather, Nakalumba Salma , and mentors from Lwemodde, Speaker Bbaale Mudashiru, Chairperson Lusiba Mikidaadi, Wetaka Neithan.

To my mentor Sue Taylor from United States of America, thank you for your guiding advice, thoughts, and building words, and all things you have done toward my life.

Who this book is for

We all believe being a parent is one of the most important jobs we can do, but it can also be one of the most difficult and we all have had times when we are frustrated, confused and stressed by our children. Therefore, This handbook is written for parents of young children, teens, youth, and adolescents. Students who are doing social sciences, those wish to join and those who are practicing it. This handbook is for Therapists/Counselors, Teachers, Lecturers, Activists, and everyone working with children, youth, adolescents in families and community members.

It aims to give you a better understanding of your child’s behavior and what is it that your child is trying to communicate through their behavior.

It also offers parenting tips and ideas on how to raise and nurture a good health child. It gives you a step-by-step guide for child development and parenting infants aged from 0-2 years, child development and parenting early childhood aged 3-7 years, child development and parenting of middle childhood aged 8-11, child development and parenting adolescents aged 12-24.

Consists of both theories and practical parts that take you through early child development techniques.

From the experience

I consider parenting to be one of the most important and most enjoyable things my parents got to do in their life. So, I think about it a lot, read about it, research it, and I write about it. I think parental choices and attitudes matter a great deal in our children’s lives. Parents like my parent sometimes get bad rap, for sure we are accused of being too involved.

My parents are what researchers call a “child centric parent” this means they tend to put their child’s well being above their own well being. I call that evolution tomato-tomato I guess. Whatever you want to call it, recent research suggests that by putting our children’s well being above our own, we experience a bump in our well being as parents.

This development is big because on the other side of this argument is the idea that we have to put ourselves first in order to be good a parent and have a good family life. My opinion lies somewhere in the middle, as I as grew up seeing my parent love time with family, and friends, working, and going to the events. However, they have also been known to turn down an opportunity or event because it would take them away from their children for too long, after all their kids happen to be the coolest people they know on this planet.

 Tell me about the study

The research actually includes two studies. In the first study, the researchers surveyed parents on child centricism, parent styles and well-being. They found that parents, who were more child-centric, reported higher levels of happiness and meaning associated with parenting role. Taken at face value this gives with my parents’ experience of parenting, therefore they do enjoy spending time with their kids, don’t always love leaving them and would happily sacrifice for them

The first study relied entirely on self report and therefore could have been affected in social desirability in how parents report. Therefore the second study used a diary reconstruction method. This basically means, the researchers asked the parents to walk with them through the previous day and related how they felt during each activity, for each activity like walking the kids to school, parents rated their positive effect, negative effect and sense of meaning during the activity. Not surprisingly, parents who were child centric reported higher levels of positive effect and meaning the lower levels of negative effect when they were involved in child care activities

Here are my child centricism quiz

In measuring child centricism we go through series of items or tools, so be reviewing the questions below you will get the idea how child centric you are;

  1. my children are center of my life.
  2. the happiness of my children is more important to me than my own happiness
  3. my children are the most frequent topic of my discussion
  4. I don’t mind leaving my children to spend time with my friends (reverse the item)
  5. I would be willing to make almost any sacrifice for my children
  6. my schedule removes around my children
  7. The needs of my children come before my own.

Excerpt

We all believe being a parent is one of the most important jobs we can do, but it can also be one of the most difficult and we all have had times when we are frustrated, confused and stressed by our children. Therefore,This handbook is written for parents of young children, teens, youth, and adolescents.Students who are doing social sciences, those wish to join and those who are practicing it.This handbook is for Therapists/Counselors, Teachers, Lecturers, Activists, and everyone working with children, youth, adolescents in families and community members. It aims to give you a beater understanding of your childs behavior and what is it that your child is trying to communicate through their behavior. It also offers parenting tips and ideas on how to raise and nurture a good health child. It gives you a step-by-step guide for child development and parenting infants aged from 0-2 years, child development and parenting early childhood aged 3-7 years, child development and parenting of middle childhood aged 8-11, child development and parenting adolescents aged 12-24.Consists of both theories and practical parts that take you through early child development techniques.This books also aimed at anyone who experiences anxiety, stress, and depression, it looks into the causes, its effects, symptoms, and what to do to reduce it to a manageable level, it further draws some of research findings about stress, anxiety and depression caused during early stages that can cause negative impact of a child at later stages.This books aims to teach family members how to treat themselves using home remedies and tips in preventing expensive diseases like Cancer, heart diseases, skin diseases, cold and flue, hepatitis B, asthma to improve health and reducing costs of treatment. It further dig deep to understand right approach to combat HIV/AIDS and other Sexually transmitted diseases, importance of circumcision and attitudes towards it. This handbook further aims to make us understand about our social family addictive behaviors like masturbation and its effects to our general health, drug addiction and its effects and practical guide to combat all forms of social family addictive behaviorsThis handbook aims to make us understand about the importance of fitness, exercise, diet and nutrition at home, foods that we must eat on breakfast, lunch, and supper, for children and adults and food we must stop to take.It teaches us therapy at home or in families, its importations, right time to see a therapist, domestic violence and its effects and a step by step guide to counseling and guidance.Lastly it has go good classic stories for babies and children, it will help your little one to explore the hysterical wonders of the world through tales that can help to build their cognition and memory.

From the experience I consider parenting to be one of the most important and most enjoyable things my parents got to do in their life. So, I think about it a lot, read about it, research it, and I write about it. I think parental choices and attitudes matter a great deal in our children’s lives. Parents like my parent sometimes get bad rap, for sure we are accused of being too involved.My parents are what researchers call a “child centric parent” this means they tend to put their child’s well being above their own well being. I call that evolution tomato-tomato I guess. Whatever you want to call it, recent research suggests that by putting our children’s well being above our own, we experience a bump in our well being as parents.This development is big because on the other side of this argument is the idea that we have to put ourselves first in order to be good a parent and have a good family life. My opinion lies somewhere in the middle, as I as grew up seeing my parent love time with family, and friends, working, and going to the events. However, they have also been known to turn down an opportunity or event because it would take them away from their children.

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Visit the Facebook Fan Page.
Visit the Twitter page. 

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HOMEOPATHETIC APROACH TO CANCER TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT.

HOMEOPATHETIC APROACH TO CANCER TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT.

cancer Cancer become any age group person may cancer, but nearly all types are more common in middle aged and elderly people than in young people. Skin is the most common type of cancer for both men and women. The next most common type among men is prostate cancer; among women, it is breast cancer. Lung cancer, however, is the leading cause of death from cancer for both men and women . Brain cancer and leukemia are the most common cancers in children and young adults.

The more we can learn about what causes cancer, the more likely we are to find ways to prevent it. Scientists study patterns of cancer in the population to look for factors that affect the risk of developing this disease. In the laboratory, they explore possible causes of cancer and try to determine what actually happens when normal cells become cancerous.

Our current understanding of the causes of cancer is incomplete, but it is clear that cancer is not caused by an injury, such as a bump or bruise. And although being infected with certain viruses may increase the risk of some types of cancer, cancer is not contagious no one can “catch” cancer from another person.

Cancer develops gradually as a result of a complex mix of factors related to environment, lifestyle, and heredity. Scientists have identified many risk factors that increase the chance of getting cancer. They estimate that about 80 percent of all cancers are related to the use of tobacco products, to what we eat and drink, or, to a lesser extent, to exposure to radiation or cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) in the environment and the workplace. Some people are more sensitive than others to factors that can cause cancer.

Many risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as inherited risk factors, are, unavoidable. It is helpful to be aware of them, but it Is also important to keep in mind that not everyone with a particular risk factor for cancer actually gets the disease; in fact, most do not. People at risk can help protect themselves by avoiding risk factors where possible and by getting regular checkups so that, if cancer develops, it is likely to be found early.

These are some of the factors that are known to increase the risk of cancer.

Tobacco – Tobacco causes cancer. In fact, smoking tobacco, using “smokeless” tobacco, and being regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke without smoking are responsible for one-third of all cancer deaths. Smoking accounts for more than 85 percent of all lung cancer deaths. If you smoke, your risk of getting lung cancer is affected by the number and type of cigarettes you smoke and how long you have been smoking. Overall, for those who smoke one pack a day, the chance of setting lung cancer is about 10 times greater than for nonsmokers.

Smokers are also more likely than nonsmokers to develop several other types of cancer (such as oral cancer and cancers of the larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, and cervix). The risk of cancer begins to decrease when a smoker quits, and the risk continues to decline gradually each year after quitting.

The use of smokeless tobacco (chewing, tobacco and snuff) causes cancer of the mouth and throat. Pre-cancerous conditions, or tissue changes that may lead to cancer, begin to go away after a person stops using smokeless tobacco.

Exposure to environmental tobacco smokes, also called involuntary smoking, increases the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers. The risk goes up 30 percent or more for a nonsmoking spouse of a person who smokes. Involuntary smoking causes about 4,000 lung cancer deaths in this country each year.

If you use tobacco in any form and you need help quitting, talk with your doctor or dentist, or join a smoking cessation group sponsored by a local hospital or voluntary organization.

Diet: Your choice of foods may affect your chance of developing cancer. Evidence points to a link between a high-fat diet and certain cancers, such as cancer of the breast, colon, uterus, and prostate. Being seriously overweight appears to be linked to increased rates of cancer of the prostate, pancreas, uterus, Colon, and ovary, and to breast cancer in older women. On the other hand, studies suggest that foods containing fiber and certain nutrients help protect us against some types of cancer. You may be able to reduce your cancer risk by making some simple food choices. Try to have a varied, well-balanced diet that includes generous amounts of foods that are high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. At the same time, try to cut down on fatty foods. You should eat five servings of fruits and vegetables each day, choose more whole-grain breads and cereals, and cut down on eggs, high-fat meat, high-fat dairy products (such as whole milk, butter, and most cheeses), salad dressings, margarine, and cooking oils.

Sunlight :Ultraviolet radiation from the sun and from other sources (such as sunlamps and tanning booths) damages the skin and can cause skin cancer. (Two types of ultraviolet radiation–UVA and UVB–are explained in the Medical Terms section.) Repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of skin cancer, especially if you have fair skin or freckle easily. The sun is ultraviolet rays are strongest during the summer from about 11 a.m. to about 3 p.m. (daylight saving time). The risk is greatest at this time, when the sun is high overhead and shadows are short. As a rule, it is best to avoid the sun when your shadow is shorter than you are.

Protective clothing, such as a hat and, long sleeves, can help block the sun’s harmful rays. You can also use sunscreens to help protect yourself. Sunscreens are rated in strength according to their SPF (sun protection factor), which ranges from 2 to 30 and higher. Those rated 15 to 30 block most of the sun’s harmful rays.

Alcohol. Drinking, large amount of alcohol increases the risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and larynx. (People who smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol have an especially high risk of getting these cancers.) Alcohol can damage the liver and increase the risk of liver cancer. Some studies suggest that drinking alcohol also increases the risk of breast cancer. So if you drink at all, do so in moderation-not more than one or two drinks a day.

Radiation: X-rays used for diagnosis expose you to very little radiation and the benefits nearly always outweigh the risks. However, repeated exposure can be harmful, so it is a good idea to talk with your doctor or dentist about the need for each x-ray and ask about the use of shields to protect other parts of your body. Before 1950, X-rays were used to treat non-cancerous conditions (such as an enlarged thymus, enlarged tonsils and adenoids, ringworm of the scalp, and acne) in children and young adults. People who have received radiation to the head and neck have a higher-than-average risk of developing thyroid cancer years later. People with a history of such treatments should report it to their doctor and should have a careful exam of the neck every 1 or 2 years.

Also, radiation used in the treatment of some types of cancer can increase the risk of developing a second cancer. Patients having radiation therapy may want to discuss this issue with their doctor.

Chemicals and other substances in the workplace being exposed to substances such as metals, dust chemicals, or pesticides at work can increase the risk of cancer. Asbestos, nickel, cadmium, uranium, radon, vinyl chloride, benzidene, and benzene are well-known examples of carcinogens in the workplace. These may act alone or along with another carcinogen, such as cigarette smoke. For example, inhaling asbestos fibers increases the risk of lung diseases, including cancer, and the cancer risk is especially high for asbestos workers who smoke. It is important to follow work and safety rules to avoid contact with dangerous materials.

Hormone replacement therapy :Many women use estrogen therapy to control the hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and osteoporosis (thinning of the bones) that may occur during menopause. However, studies show that estrogen use increases the risk of cancer of the uterus. Other studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among women who have used high doses of estrogen or have used estrogen for a long time. At the same time, taking estrogen may reduce the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis.

The risk of uterine cancer appears to be less when progesterone is used with estrogen than when estrogen is used alone. But some scientists are concerned that the addition of progesterone may also increase the CANCER risk of breast cancer.

What is depression?

What Is Depression? Depression Sy?\nmptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatments
BY Lukonge Achilees

Mental health has now become the talk of the town. Initially, no one would step forward even to talk about it forget about accepting it. Yes, it was the stigma that has always been .\nattached when it comes to mental health disorders. I’m here to talk about depression what are the Depression symptoms, their undermine causes, types of it and how to treat one.

What Is Depression?
Let’s get the idea first ‘Depression’ the word is now rather used more commonly than ever before because how else do we explain to others what we are going through? Right, so now coming to medical terms Depression ( major depressive disorder ) is a common and serious mental illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. It is characterized by a persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life. Depression symptoms are rather easy to observe if you are close enough to the person who is dealing with it.

Now a few statistics according to WHO around 4.5 % of the population in India is suffering from depression. 706 suicides happen in a day in accordance with the 2011 WHO report. Depression symptoms can strike at any time of the life. Women are more likely to experience it than men. So what do we know about it? Is it the same as being sad? Ah, no it is different, in common words it lasts for a longer duration usually for weeks or months. Suicidal thoughts, feeling of worthlessness comes along with the disorder.

Different Forms of Depression
Let’s come to the types of it. I will stick to a little of clinical terms/jargons in the next paragraphs but you will understand it.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
The first is Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) it involves low mood/ interest and pleasure in usual activities. It has different severities ranging from mild, moderate and severe.

Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymic disorder)
The second one is Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymic disorder); a type that’s lasts for 2 years or longer. Persistent feeling down for more than 2 years along with other symptoms.

Bipolar disorder
The third is Bipolar disorder also commonly called as ‘manic phase’ that has periods ranging from high energy mode to low depressive moods. The person experiences themselves at the top of the world when they are the manic stage but will even refuse to get out of the room when depressive symptoms crawl in.

Psychotic Depression
The fourth one is Psychotic Depression where a person experiences major symptoms along with psychotic symptoms. It involves hallucinations and delusions.

Seasonal Affective Disorder( SAD)
Fifth is Seasonal Affective Disorder( SAD) when a particular season i.e winter affects your mood, sleeping patterns, weight gain and comes along with depression symptoms, then you might be affected by it. It is believed to be triggered by a disturbance in the normal circadian rhythm of the body.

Atypical Depression
Atypical Depression is one where it is not like the typical presentation of a disorder.

Postpartum Depression
The seventh type is Postpartum Depression; it comes after giving birth to a child. It can occur from weeks to months after that.

Situational Depression
Lastly, Situational Depression is triggered by life-changing events such as job loss, the death of a loved one. It is more common than the major depression.

Depression Symptoms
And now we come to the depression symptoms.
People experience differences in mood, sleep, weight, cognitive and behavior patterns. The mood varies from low/depressed to high in energy. The activities that earlier used to give pleasure has now become a burden. Mood swings for no sudden reason and distance from everyone around them.

Sleep pattern is either categorized as hypersomnia (excessive sleep) or insomnia (no sleep).
People feel restless even when they have overslept.

Weight is also one of the most common changes that are seen in a person. It is either excessive eating or loss of appetite. This usually leads to eating disorders like anorexia nervosa, bulimia or binge eating which is again very harmful.

Cognitive: lack of concentration is very common, the daily activities that require five minutes of the time takes more than an hour or a day to complete.

Thoughts about suicide vary from person to person, some may not have it in the beginning but later on, they might think of doing it.

People show different behavior patterns like isolating oneself from others, crying for no apparent reason, getting angry at small things around them. Ideas of hopelessness or nothing good can happen to them cover their minds.

Anxiety for places or people can occur sometimes. The depression symptoms should be checked on as early as possible.

Causes of Depression
A lot of factors contribute to depression.

Genetics and biology
Depression has always been linked to genetics. It has been researched that children whose parents have depression can be at the risk of getting one. However, the specific genes have not been identified. Biological factors influence all aspects of our behavior. Faulty genes, endocrine imbalances, malnutrition may interfere with normal development and functioning of the human body.

Drugs
Certain drugs also lead to depressive symptoms for example benzodiazepines and beta blockers.

Chronic illness
Chronic illness that lasts for a very long time and can usually be not cured can cause depression. Heart disease, diabetes, HIV are some examples of chronic illness.

Poor Nutrition
Poor nutrition can contribute to depression in several ways. A variety of minerals and vitamins deficiencies are known to cause depression symptoms. Diets that are low in omega -3 fatty acids are associated with increased rates of depression.

Certain events in our life
A lot of events in our life prove to be quite stressful for us. Our ability to cope with those events may not be sufficient to help us overcome it. Loss of a job can be a stressful event for one person but not be to another. It depends on how we perceive them to be. Certain traumas in our life can lead to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The after effects are so long that the person needs immediate medical attention and rehabilitation service. Our culture also Affects Depression .

Treatment Options
Treatments are given according to the needs of the person and their symptoms.

Medical Help
A lot of therapies are used like the Cognitive behavioral therapy; the focus is on modifying negative thoughts, behaviors.
Behavioral therapy modifies harmful behavior associated with psychological distress. And psychotherapy or the talk therapy that it is commonly called.
Psychodynamic therapy is a therapeutic approach that understands the behavior and feelings rooted in past experiences and resolves them.

Medications have also proven to be very effective in treating depression symptoms. Antidepressants help reduce or control symptoms but they take almost 12 weeks to reach full effect. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) is the most common antidepressant.

For some people, brain stimulation therapies can show great effects. Electroconvulsive therapy is one form. Small amounts of currents are passed through the brain causing changes in brain chemistry.

Non-Medical Help
Now all these are the medical help that you may opt for but other than that Making changes in your routine.

Getting proper sleep.
Maintaining a proper diet.
Setting goals for oneself are the small things that can make changes in our life.

Put yourself into hobbies that can be engaging so that negative thoughts are out of reach.

Accepting and reaching out to others for help is the first step towards positive mental health.

A lot of organizations come forward and support those suffering from depression or any other symptoms. There are support groups where people can go and talk and share their views or anything about their life. This helps in the first step that is acceptance.

‘If you care, you would ask’ we have become so engrossed with our lives that we don’t look for people who have our backs. The people whom we sometimes don’t give time might be calling us for help. A help that requires more than just listening to them but also supporting them for the battle they are fighting with one own self.

As already said it can happen at any time so age is no constraint. Just because someone is having a breakdown at the age of 13 doesn’t make it any less vulnerable. I repeat again something that might not be stressful for you can be for the other person, so don’t judge.

“Most people do not listen with the intent to understand, they listen with the intent to reply”- Stephen R. Covey. Depression can always be cured with the support of friends and family. Everyone has to be sensitive to each other because all of us are vulnerable from the inside. It’s just some of us hide very nicely. We often feel sad for ourselves when things don’t turn out our way. This gets us into the cycle of self-doubt, loathing and then taking it out on ourselves.

Don’t be too harsh after all we are humans with flaws. We are in the same hurdle trying to perfect ourselves. Society has played its role in the stigma attached to mental health problems. Talk, scream, whisper and let the world hear you because you are more than your disorder. You are a body with a mind of its own, and thousands of battles to win.

I consider parenting to be one of the most important and most enjoyable things my parents got to do in their life. So, I think about it a lot, read about it, research it, and I write about it. a must read, reach me at archileeslukonge@gmail.com

MAKE ME UNDERSTAND ABOUT FAMILY & HEALTH

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Acknowledgements

This journey would not have been possible without the support of my family, proffessors, and mentors, and friends. To my family, thank you for encouraging me in all of my pursuits and inspiring me to follow my dreams, iam especially greatful to my parents, who supported me emotionally and financially. I always knew that you believed in me and wanted the best for me. Thank you for teaching me that my job in life was to learn, to be happy, and to know and understand myself; only then could I know and understand others. Thank you my mother, Nakayemba Rose, for guiding me as aperson, a social worker, psychologist and teacher to finish my degree and giving me an upper hand in this process of book writing.

I must thank all social work Lecturers and professors at Muteesa 1 Royal university whom I have worked with in editing this book, and those who tought me all what I know in social science structures, thanks for showing me what it means to be a dedicated, each in their own unique way. Each of you have given of your time, energy, and expertise and iam richer for it: Lecturer Lwanga Edward Bita, Lecturer Luttamaguzi John Bosco, Dr. Tumukunde Aloysious, Prof. Mukiibi Prof Mutaawe Richard, Lecturer Lukyamuzi Daniel, Lecturer Nakiyemba Christine, My father Deogracious Kaggwa Kaganda, and to my teacher in social affairs, Madam Namuwulya Alice, thank you for supporting me through out this process and to helping me explore ideas about researching beautiful important social aspects.

I would like to give special thanks to my inspiring roll models, I owe a debt of gratitude to Lecturer Lwanga Edward Bita for his time and careful attention to detail in everything I know in social work. To teacher Lukwago Ibrah I thank him for his untiring support and guidance throughout my journey. To my Father Profesor Mutaawe Richard and My senior Friend Bwanika Kizza Rogan Elemegio, who encouraged me to peruse the degree in social sciences and psychology, you have mentored me for almost 15 years. To Mr. Luttamaguzi John Bosco, thank you for modling great teaching and furthering my thinking about Social work and family, Psychology, anthropology, social work theories, community rehabilitation, social work intervation, and many others, Mr. Lwanga E.Bita thanks for furthering my thinking about Socialogy, and statistics in social research, Mr. Mukiibi Andrew Adrian thank you for furthering my thinking about Gender mainstreaming, Research Methodology. Dr. Tumukunde Aloysious you modeled me in Social work courses.

To my roommates, thank you for listening, offering me advise and supporting me through this entire process, special thanks to my Muteesa I royal university friends; Baligabye John Bosco, Lukwago Wasswa Ibrah, Makumbi Bruno, Bbaale Muchafu Junior, Nabulonge Jackline, Marine Carine, Kyeyune James,  Nalinnya Shama, Akatusaasira Marion, Natulinda Prudence, Waliggo Kenneth, Luswata Shafik, Kizito Abdu, Okot Ben Weza, Eripu Bruno, Katushabe Gloria, Johanna Patronella, Namagembe Dorah, Humaya Swalehe, Nakabira Sohadu, Musimenta Sarah, Kwagala Betty, Erumbi Ritah, Kasibante Gilbert, Matovu Steven, Namatovu Safinah. Nakafuuma Lilian, Nambalirwa Diana. Nabbaale Shamim, Ssembatya Deo. Nannyonjo Hajarah, Kamya Adam, Eng Lumu Jessy Sserunkuuma. Faith Vero, The debates, coursework, chats, texts, exams advice, rides to tours, fun in lecture room, and general help and friendship were all appreciated.

To my village mates Lugemwa Brian, Kasekende Tonny, Kaggwa Mathias, Luswata Philip, Namukasa Rose, Ssembatya Bazil, Kizza Lwerimba Mujapan, Ssendago Rogers, Namuli Magret, Sserwadda Joseph, Lutaaya Lawrence, Mandoni,  Danio Kenzo, Kato emanuel, Muteesasira Lazarus,

To my OB’S and OG’s Kibaale Primary and St marys Ssanje Kabugo Gerald, Lumala John, Ssentumbwe Sharif, Ssentongo David, Ssekyanzi Anthony, Ssebadda Nichorus, Namugumya Mary, Ssozi Edward, Mutunzi Jude, Ssengonzi peter, Mugalula Lawrence, Kalita,  Luswata Erias, Namiiro Eveline, Kasembe Angella, Mulindwa Tonny, Nansasi Sylivia, Bamutengire Florence, Nakato Anella, Ojirot Isaac, Ssenyonjo Abdumalik, Paul Alpha, Mugera Rogers, Ampulire Steven. the list is endless.

To my OB’s and OG’s Kabale Ssanje, Baligabye John Bosco, Kakunini Alonso, Kyamukuuma Samuel, Ssuuna Dominic, Katende Edward, Muchunguzi Remigius, Sseguya Islam, Nantongo Ritah, Muwawu Ronald, Naava Jacky, Nanyondo Agnes, Stella Birungi, Nakiganda Milly, Rosha Kelly, Kabuye Dickson, Wasswa Ronald, Kasagga Hamza, Nangabi Aisha, Kasule Richard, Matovu David, Kambiaso Timothy, Musasizi Richard, Kalibbala Micheal, Munono Abdu, Matovu Isaac, Kiwummulo Joseph, Nantongo Josephine, Nannono Catehrine, Jerico, Nasolo Jacky, Kulwa maige, Noreen, Kiyimba John Bosco, Wasswa Francis, Kayondo Gerald, Muchunguzi Ezra, Kays, Kisuule Paul, Mulindwa Jorge William, Mutagubya Moses, Sabrano Ssabastian Ssentume, Muto Ibrahim. the list is endless. And to my friends scattered around the country, that you for your thoughts, well wishes/players, phone calls, emails, texts, visits, editing advice, and being there wherever I needed a friend.

To my brothers and sisters, Bukenya Richard, Namikyo Regina, Nabasese Jastine, Kannyana David, Namatovu Annet, Nabayunga Doreen, Mutaawe Julius, Messiah Anthony, Matovu Anthony, Nakyondwa Prossy, Mutaawe Emanuel, Lubega Talemwa, my Father Kaganda Deogracious Kaggwa, and my mother Nakayemba Rose, thank you to be there always, you raised me well and shaped me into a very important person.

To my family, RODI family headed by Prof. Mutaawe Richard and Prof. Londo Johnson, you are the reason why I finished my studies, no words can describe your presence in my life, and may God bless you all.

To my mentors at a work place PTMOF, Maama Ptmof, Mrs. Solome Nanvule, Mrs. Namuwulya Alice, Nagawa Mariam, Nakulima Winnie, Nakaweesi Agather, Nakalumba Salma , and mentors from Lwemodde, Speaker Bbaale Mudashiru, Chairperson Lusiba Mikidaadi, Mayinja Hassan, Nakamya Sylivia, Namuwawu Sylivia, Wetaka Neithan.

To my mentor Sue Taylor from United States of America, thank you for your guiding advice, thoughts, and building words, and all things you have done toward my life.

About the author

Lukonge Achilees is highly experienced social worker, psychologist, counselor/therapist currently working at Pelletier teenage mothers foundation (PTMOF) with the remarkable ability to create, discover and tell important social work articles that can teach us all the most important lessons in our families, health and our life. With Make me understand about family and health, he strives especially to help parents, children, students in social work learn how to nurture a health family. Providing them opportunities for getting help in matters concerning family, and to help students and parents understand their roles and responsibilities in upbringing a child, in a health environment.

Make me understand about family and health is a must read for everyone in the family, and those working with children like care givers, teachers, guides and others fall in that category. Lukonge Achilees takes the reader on a wonderful journey, balancing all family and health sections, good therapeutic technique, and family empirical styles during the trip. Given that Lukonge Achilees elaborated aspects required in nurturing a health family, and any reader using this resource should increase their understanding of how family works, and how to raise good children, and how to stay safe and healthy in the family system.

Make me understand about family and health is a fantastic book, well executed by a master! Achilees, systematically leads readers through every step of raising children, and provides examples for achieving a wide variety of specific goals.

Who this book is for

We all believe being a parent is one of the most important jobs we can do, but it can also be one of the most difficult and we all have had times when we are frustrated, confused and stressed by our children. Therefore,

This handbook is written for parents of young children, teens, youth, and adolescents.Students who are doing social sciences, those wish to join and those who are practicing it.

This handbook is for Therapists/Counselors, Teachers, Lecturers, Activists, and everyone working with children, youth, adolescents in families and community members.

It aims to give you a beater understanding of your child’s behavior and what is it that your child is trying to communicate through their behavior.

It also offers parenting tips and ideas on how to raise and nurture a good health child. It gives you a step-by-step guide for child development and parenting infants aged from 0-2 years, child development and parenting early childhood aged 3-7 years, child development and parenting of middle childhood aged 8-11, child development and parenting adolescents aged 12-24.

Consists of both theories and practical parts that take you through early child development techniques.

This books also aimed at anyone who experiences anxiety, stress, and depression, it looks into the causes, its effects, symptoms, and what to do to reduce it to a manageable level, it further draws some of research findings about stress, anxiety and depression caused during early stages that can cause negative impact of a child at later stages.

This books aims to teach family members how to treat themselves using home remedies and tips in preventing expensive diseases like Cancer, heart diseases, skin diseases, cold and flue, hepatitis B, asthma to improve health and reducing costs of treatment.

It further dig deep to understand right approach to combat HIV/AIDS and other Sexually transmitted diseases, importance of circumcision and attitudes towards it.

This handbook further aims to make us understand about our social family addictive behaviors like masturbation and its effects to our general health, drug addiction and its effects and practical guide to combat all forms of social family addictive behaviors

This handbook aims to make us understand about the importance of fitness, exercise, diet and nutrition at home, foods that we must eat on breakfast, lunch, and supper, for children and adults and food we must stop to take.

It teaches us therapy at home or in families, its importations, right time to see a therapist, domestic violence and its effects and a step by step guide to counseling and guidance.

Lastly it has go good classic stories for babies and children, it will help your little one to explore the hysterical wonders of the world through tales that can help to build their cognition and memory

From the experience

I consider parenting to be one of the most important and most enjoyable things my parents got to do in their life. So, I think about it a lot, read about it, research it, and I write about it. I think parental choices and attitudes matter a great deal in our children’s lives. Parents like my parent sometimes get bad rap, for sure we are accused of being too involved.

My parents are what researchers call a “child centric parent” this means they tend to put their child’s well being above their own well being. I call that evolution tomato-tomato I guess. Whatever you want to call it, recent research suggests that by putting our children’s well being above our own, we experience a bump in our well being as parents.

This development is big because on the other side of this argument is the idea that we have to put ourselves first in order to be good a parent and have a good family life. My opinion lies somewhere in the middle, as I as grew up seeing my parent love time with family, and friends, working, and going to the events. However, they have also been known to turn down an opportunity or event because it would take them away from their children for too long, after all their kids happen to be the coolest people they know on this planet.

Tell me about the study

The research actually includes two studies. In the first study, the researchers surveyed, parents on child centricism, parent styles and well-being. They found that parents, who were more child-centric, reported higher levels of happiness and meaning associated with parenting role. Taken at face value this gives with my parents’ experience of parenting, therefore they do enjoy spending time with their kids, don’t always love leaving them and would happily sacrifice for them

The first study relied entirely on self report and therefore could have been affected  in social desirability in how parents report. Therefore the second study used a diary reconstruction method. This basically means, the researchers asked the parents to walk with them through the previous day and related how they felt during each activity, for each activity like walking the kids to school, parents rated their positive effect, negative effect and sense of meaning during the activity. Not surprisingly, parents who were child centric reported higher levels of positive effect and meaning the lower levels of negative effect when they were involved in child care activities

In other words, child centric parents enjoy parenting, they are happy when they are parenting and they find parenting provides meaning and purpose in their lives

Here are my child centricism quiz

In measuring child centricism we go through series of items or tools, so be reviewing the questions below you will get the idea how child centric you are;

  1. my children are center of my life.
  2. the happiness of my children is more important to me than my own happiness
  3. my children are the most frequent topic of my discussion
  4. I don’t mind leaving my children to spend time with my friends (reverse the item)
  5. I would be willing to make almost any sacrifice for my children
  6. my schedule removes around my children
  7. the needs of my children come before my own.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Acknowledgement

Introduction

About the author

What is this book for?

PART 1 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING

Preparing for the baby: the story

Over view

CHAPTER 1 CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES

Introduction; overview of child development theories

Developmental channels and Theories of development

Developmental Stages milestones of child development

Sensitive periods in child development

Major child development theories and theorists

Sigmund freud’s psychosexual stages of development theory

Erik erikson’s psychosocial stage theory

Lawrence kohlberg’s moral understanding stage theory

Jean piaget’s cognitive development stage theory

Urie Bronfenbrenner ecological system theory

Conclusion.

CHAPTER II CHID DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING INFANTS (0-2 YEARS)

Infant development. How your baby grew and matures

Introduction

Infancy Physical development

Infancy physical development. Motor skills

Infancy physical development. Gross motor skills

Infancy physical development. Fine motor skills

Infancy physical development. Average growth

Infancy coginitive development

Infancy cognitive development. Language development

Infancy Emotional/social development. Emotional expression and understanding

Infancy emotional and social development. Social connections

Infancy Sexuality and body awareness development

Infant parenting: keeping your baby healthy and happy

Introduction

Holding and Physical support

Facilitating growth movement

Feeding and nutrition

How much to feed?

Expressing and storing Breast-feeding

Selecting and preparing bottles and how to feed

Burping and spitting up

When and what Solid foods to introduce?

Feeding solids and how to feed solid foods

How much to feed babies?

Weaning

Elimination and how to diaper, and penis and cord care

Sleeping, Bathing and soothing a crying baby

Hygiene and dressing your baby

Well baby Checks and immunizations

Common baby concern, teething, colic, cough and colds, fever, diarrhea and vomiting.

Nurturing children, discipline, baby safety

Conclusion

Infant safety: keeping your baby safe

Introduction to infant safety

Playroom/nursery safety

Kitchen and bathroom safety

Fire/electrical, pet safety, and car safety.

Out door safety and preparing for the worst

 

CHAPTER III CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT (3-7 YEARS)

Development during early childhood, toddler, and pre-school stages

Introduction: development during early childhood

Early childhood development average growth

Physical development. Fine motor skills

Early childhood physical development. Toilet training

Early childhood cognitive development. Introduction

Early childhood cognitive development symbolic function

Early childhood cognitive development intuitive thought

Early childhood cognitive development. Language development

Early childhood emotional and social development. Emotional expressiveness and understanding.

Early childhood emotional and social development. Reflective empathy

Early childhood emotional and social development. Aggression

Conclusion

Early childhood emotional and social development identity and self-esteem

Early childhood emotional and social development social connections

Early childhood moral development

Early childhood gender identity and sexuality

Conclusion

Parenting your toddler, preschooler, and young child.

Early childhood Toilet training introduction

Introduction to parenting your toddler, preschooler, and young child.

Early childhood feeding and nutrition

Early childhood sleep

Early childhood hygiene

Early childhood exercise

Early childhood love and nurturing

Early childhood, its important to encourage reading

Early childhood medical care

Early childhood mental care

Early childhood safety

Coping with transitions in early childhood: Getting a new sibling or remaining an only child

Coping with transition in early childhood. Going to day care

Coping with transition. Starting pre-school or kindergarten

Conclusion.

Early childhood toilet training

Early childhood toilet training introduction

The right time to start toilet training. Children’s readiness

The right time to start toilet training. Family readiness and red flags

Pre-toilet training in early childhood

Preparing the space for toilet training in early childhood

Toilet training friendly friendly clothing

Early childhood toilet training methods

Conclusion

How to deal with toilet training challenges? When traveling

How to deal with toilet training challenges? Constipation and fear of flushing

Bed-wetting, encopresis and enuresis

Conclusion

Disciplining your toddler, preschooler, and young introduction

Preventing early childhood misbehavior before it happens

The use of choice in early childhood

A step-by-step guide for how to discipline children in early childhood

Natural and logical consequences in early childhood

Combining choice and consequences in early childhood

Childhood time outs

Spanking in early childhood

Coordinating to provide continuity of early childhood discipline across caregivers

Lying in early childhood

Supportive communication in early childhood and discipline

Conclusion

Nurturing your toddler, preschooler, and young children

Introduction

Creating nurturing space in early childhood

Physical nurturing. Gross motor activities in early child hood

Physical nurturing fine motor activities in early childhood

Cognitive nurturing in early childhood

Social nurturing in early childhood

Emotional nurturing in early childhood

Cultural and spiritual nurturing in early childhood

Nurturing at home and outside.

Conclusion.

CHAPTER IV CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (8-11 YEARS)

            Nurturing your middle childhood

Introduction

Child feeding and nutrition

Components of healthy meals and importance of water

Child sleeping, and managing children’s insomnia

Child hygiene and appearance

Preventive health care, dental and vision car, sun safety,

Common childhood illnesses

Middle Children safety

            Introduction

Automobiles, walking and biking safety, stranger danger, leaving children home alone, out door safety, swimming pool safety.

Middle Children education

introduction

Education and schools,

Engaging with teachers, the school, other parents and the educational process

Helping children get their home work done

Handling school related discipline incidents and planning in advance for school closings and sick days.

Middle Child discipline and guidance

Introduction

Choices and consequences

Grounding children and sticker charts

Children cores, nurturing and children’s need for privacy

Dealing with difficult middle childhood issues

Introduction

Dealing with life’s tough topics like death, parents’ divorce and remarriage, step parenting, blended families, moving to new house, fitting in and peer pressure,

Teaching in children social skills,

Cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs at home,

Romantic crushes and questions about sex

Sibling rivalry, encouraging children to support one another by diverting direct competition, and handling manipulative or aggressive children

Bullying and peer abuse and prejudice.

Conclusion

CHAPTER V CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING ADOLESCENCE (12-24)

Child development theory. Adolescence

What is adolescence? And an introduction to adolescence development

An overview of adolescence development

Adolescence physical development

Adolescence cognitive development

Adolescence emotional development

Adolescence social development

Adolescence moral development

Adolescence sexual development

Middle to late adolescence ages (15-22) the age of romance

Conclusion

CHAPTER VI CHILDREN AND INTERNET ADDICTION IN FAMILIES

Introduction to Internet addiction

Symptoms of Internet addiction and Internet addiction treatment

Children and media issues

Types of media, its benefits and challenges

Managing and controlling children media usage as a parent at home.

 

PART II    UNDERSTANDING HEALTH AT HOME

CHAPTER VII FITNESS, FOOD DIET AND NUTRITIION

Introduction

What is fitness, diet, and nutrition

Get to know that sitting just 1 hour hurts your heart.

Learn ways to sit less if you have a desk job.

Ways exercise and practicing yoga makes you look and feel younger

Starting fitness and exercise at home for free, home guide.

A look at dieting myths before you make a decision

Top food that you shouldn’t miss in your home and why?

Top tips for cheap and healthy eating

Top unhealthy food on the planet that you should avoid right now.

CHAPTER VIII   HIV/AIDS and STDS AWARENESS IN FAMILY

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

           What is HIV/AIDS?

Facts about HIV/AIDS worldwide.

How parents and caregivers talk with their children about HIV/AIDS (how do I begin to talk with my children about HIV/AIDS)

Talking with infants and toddlers (0-2years), talking with preschool children (3-4years), talking with young children (5-8 years), talking with preteens (9-12years) talking with teens (13-19 years)

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDS)

Questions and answers

Circumcision

Questions and answers

CHAPTER IX CANCER TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT

Home pathetic approach to cancer treatment

What is cancer?

General causes of cancer

20 types of cancer its causes and prevention using home remedies.

How to fight off 6 man killing cancer

Questions and answers

PART III  STRESS, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION MANAGEMENT AT HOME         

CHAPTER X STRESS, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION MANAGEMENT AT HOME

Stress management

What is stress?

Is stress a big issue?

Causes of stress

Effects of stress

Coping up with stress

Anxiety and depression management

What is anxiety and depression?

What triggers teen depression

Signs and symptoms of teen depression

Types of teen depression

Depression in adults

Causes of adult depression

Signs and symptoms of adult depression

Treatment for anxiety and depression

Research facts about stress, anxiety and depression

Did you know?

Maternal depression more likely at 4 years than 1 year

Depressed parents may hinder child school performance

Kids needs father when mother is depressed

Father’s depression can also influence child’s health

Chronic child illness tied to adult mental health problems

Early child mental disorders linked to longer physical problems

Strong dad-child bond may buffer against mums depression

Child abuse linked to adolescent self-injury

Being bullied increases likelihood of self-harm

Simple assessment identifies teen at risk

Increases openness improves everything.

Therapy at home

A story from Pricilla

Benefits of therapy and tips to know when to see a therapist

Mindfulness basic therapy

Antisocial behaviors

Drug addiction in families

Masturbation and its effects

PART IV CHILDREN CLASSIC STORIES.

Two flogs

On the way to the sun

The flog prince

The hare and monkey

The hare, lion and leopard

The bad girl

Lenny the flying inventor

The ass’s shadow

The hungry mouse

The crooked hyena

The donkey and little dog

Love and time

The miser

The snow queen

The stonecutter

Resources, references, and other sources of this book

Index.