The first best way to understand Parenting is by Understanding your child development stages.

Welcome, Lets look into the content of the book “Make Me understand, Family, Parenting and Health.

CHAPTER ONE-

This first edition of the book of Parenting and health appears at a time that is momentous in the history of parenting. The family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state efflux, question, and redefinition than perhaps ever before. We are witnessing the emergence of striking permutations on the theme of parenting: blended families, teen versus Fifties first-time moms and dads. One cannot but be awed on the biological front by technology that now renders postmenopausal women capable of childbearing and with the possibility of designing babies. Similarly, on the sociological front, single parenthood is a modern-day fact of life, adult–child dependency is on the rise, and parents are ever less certain of their roles, even in the face of rising environmental and institutional demands that they take increasing responsibility for their offspring.

The book of Parenting is concerned with all facets of parenting. Despite the fact that most people become parents and everyone who has ever lived has had parents, parenting remains a most mystifying subject. Who is ultimately responsible for parenting? Does parenting come naturally, or must we learn how to parent? How do parents conceive of parenting?

What do theories in psychology (psychosexual stages of Sigmund Freud, psychosocial stages of Erik Erikson, moral understanding theory of Lawrence Kohlberg, Jean Piaget’s cognitive development stage theory, and Urie Bronfenbrenner ecological system theory for example) contribute to our understanding of parenting? What should parents do with each stage? For their children?

These are some of the questions and many more addressed in this first edition of the Handbook of parenting… for this is a book on how to parents much as it is one on what being a parent is all about.
Put succinctly, parents create people. It is the entrusted and abiding task of parents to prepare their offspring for the physical, psychosocial, and economic conditions in which they will eventu-ally fare and, it is hoped, flourish. Amidst the many influences on child development, parents are the “final common pathway “to children’s development and stature, adjustment and success.

BRIEFLY;
This book is divided into five parts, First consists of only one Chapter,( I) Child development theories, and Birth story from a Teen Mother, Second Part has Three Chapters, (II,III,IV) Infant development, Infant parenting & Infant safety, Third Part has Five Chapters, (V,VI,VII,VIII,IX) Development during Early Childhood, Parenting toddler, Early childhood Toilet Training, Discipling your Toddler & Nurturing your Toddler. Fourth Part has Three Chapters (X,XI,XII) Nurturing your middle childhood, Middle childhood safety & education, Middle childhood Discipline and guidance. Last Fifth Part has Three chapters, (XIII, XIV) Adolescence development theory and Children & internet addiction.

OVER VIEW

The goals of this part is to discuss what is known about how children develop from birth through adolescence, and to offer tips on how to use this developmental knowledge to improve parenting skills. In this part you will survey what is known about how children develop between birth and age 24 months, a period known as infancy.
Children develop in many different ways at the same time. Different aspects of children’s development are never at rest or waiting for other parts to catch up.

Instead, development is simultaneous. While physical growth and maturity are the most obvious signs that development is occurring, children also develop cognitively (mentally), socially, emotionally, and sexually. This part is organized so that each type of development is described separately and nothing important is left out.

The milestones of development are discussed in terms of easy to understand measurements such as weight, height, or the presence or absence of reflexes. However, not all important aspects of development can be easily measured. Mental and emotional development is difficult to measure directly. This part describes the best available theories to understand what is occurring inside each child’s head.

The works of five theorists work are considered in the course of this book: Freud, Erikson, Kohlberg, Piaget, and Bronfenbrenner. Among these theorists, the works of Piaget and Erikson speak most directly to the infancy period of life covered here. Infancy corresponds to Piaget’s “Sensorimotor” stage of cognitive development, and to two of Erikson’s stages; the “trust vs. mistrust” stage during the first year of life, and the “autonomy vs. shame and doubt” stage that follows closely after. Piaget’s work describes how infants come to understand their world through their bodies and senses. Erikson’s work describes how children develop an appreciation of both their individuality and simultaneous dependency on others, and how children’s attitudes towards themselves and others are influenced by their experiences and by the type of support and nurturing they receive.

Development is often described by referring to particular developmental milestones that are significant achievements of one sort or another such as crawling, walking, or first words. Developmental milestones are presented as occurring at particular ages. Even though developmental milestones do commonly occur at particular ages, children develop at their own pace.

Introduction;

This chapter provides a review of theories of child development.
When babies arrive in the world, they are tiny, helpless people who depend entirely on adults to take care of all their needs and wants. Somehow, with the proper loving nurturing and care over the next 22 years, they grow to become independent adults who can take care of themselves and others. The journey from infancy to adulthood is an amazing time when children soak up everything in the world around them and mix it with the qualities they are born with in order to mature bit by bit, in every way.

Over the years, people who study children have created theories to explain how children develop. While these theorists realize that every child is special and grow in his or her unique way, they also have recognized that there are general patterns children tend t0 follow as they grow up, and they have documented these patterns in their theories. This chapter will cover child developmental theory and applications such as parenting skills, will attempt to explain these fascinating but detailed theories so as to make them more understandable. Specifically, this chapter will outline the various areas, or channels, of child development that have been recognized, to explain how children tend to develop through each of these channels over time, and to state in simple language the observations of the child development field’s most important theorists.

Developmental channels and Theories of development
First, it is important to understand that children have to grow and develop in many different areas in order to become healthy, happy, productive members of adult society. There are four main areas or channels in which children grow: physical, psychological and cognitive, social and emotional, and sexuality and gender identity.

First, the physical channel is most obvious. Children’s bodies grow in height and weight over the years and change appearance during puberty. Children also develop certain physical abilities during their progression towards adulthood, including crawling, walking, running and (possibly) writing or kicking a ball.

Secondly, children also develop psychologically and cognitively as their brains absorb more information and they learn how to use that information.
Literally, children have to learn how to think on purpose and to process or organize all the information that comes to them from the environment. They must learn how to solve problems, to talk, and to complete mental tasks such as remembering telephone numbers or using computers.

Thirdly, children grow socially and emotionally. They learn how to interact, play, work, and live with other people such as family, friends, teachers, and employers. They learn how to understand both their own feelings and others’ emotions. They also learn ways of dealing with strong emotions. In order to function well as independent adults, children must develop a sense of self-esteem as they go through the long process of figuring out what shape their identity, or who they are, will take. They develop a sense of morality as they learn the difference between right and wrong.

Finally, children have to develop sexually and form a gender identity. This developmental channel is unique because it spans developments across the other physical, psychological, and social channels. Early on, children learn how their bodies work and look and what it means to be a boy or a girl; they learn how boys and girls are different. As they grow older and enter adolescence and puberty, they continue to learn how their bodies work sexually and how to responsibly handle their sexuality so as to balance their sexual desires and appropriate behavior. They continue to decide for themselves what it means to be masculine or feminine throughout their lifespan.

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES MILESTONES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Child Development Stages vs. Continuous Development
Different theorists have come to different conclusions concerning how exactly children develop across the various developmental channels. Some theorists believe that children develop smoothly and continuously, but other theorists believe that children develop more discretely in a series of stages, each of which is fairly stable.

Theorists who believe children grow continuously believe that kids constantly add new lessons and skills on top of old lessons and skills as they get older. They believe that children grow at a steady, uniform speed. Even though parents can’t see it with their eyes, children are growing all the time right in front of them. Their bodies make new cells. Their minds learn new skills as they play and interact with other people every day.
On the other hand, theorists who believe children grow discontinuously believe children grow in stages as they seem to develop chunks of abilities and to experience events at certain times in life. To some parents, it may seem that their children learn to do things all of the sudden, like when a baby goes from only being able to crawl to being able to toddle around on two feet almost overnight. Or, parents of young teenagers may say that they were amazed how their children went from thinking that kids of the opposite sex had “cooties” to constantly daydreaming about them. It seems as if these kids are growing lots in spurts at special times and then are not growing so fast for a while in between the spurts.

Both camps, continuous development and staged development, are correct in its own way, of course. While it is true that development is a continuous process that never stops, it is also true that there are stages to growth and those developments unfold at predictable times across the life span. The real difference between the two camps is likely the degree of magnification that each applies to its study, with the stage theorists taking a more distant but broader stance and the continuous theorists viewing things from up close.

This chapter will present child development as though it happens in stages. By thinking about stages, child development can be summarized in general groupings that can be more easily understood.

Developmental Stages and Milestones of Child Development
Often, developmental stages are defined by milestones. A milestone is a sort of marker that tells you where you are while traveling. The term is drawn from literal stone markers that were used to mark the passage of each mile on early roads. Today, the term milestone is used more figuratively, to indicate that a developmental stage has been achieved. Often, special milestones mark children’s accomplishments, such as walking in infancy and entering school in early childhood, and these milestones can help Mark children’s movement inside and between developmental stages.
Children build new skills and developments on top of old skills and developments from stage to stage; each stage is cumulative. A child is able to run bases in a game of baseball in the middle childhood phase because she was first able to walk near the end of her infancy stage.

Entry and exit from the various developmental stages tends to occur at particular ages. Often, a child’s stage of development can be figured out by a child’s age because children generally experience the same stages at the same ages. However a child’s age only provides a clue as to his stage; it does not determine it. Every child develops at his or her own speed. It is the tasks and skills children master that truly identify what stage they are in. Because of this, different children of the same age can be expected to be at different developmental stages.

Children’s development does not happen uniformly, but rather, it progresses along at its own rate. Just because one child is potty trained at age three and his neighbor is potty trained at age three and a half does not mean that one is brighter than the other. Furthermore, children can develop the different channels at different rates. For example, a twelve-year-olds body may have already gone through puberty and look like adolescence’s body, but that child may not have the cognitive and social abilities of an adolescent quite yet. It will take a little longer for their mind to catch up with her body.

Keep this lack of developmental sameness in mind as you read the chapter in this book. Whenever a document suggests ages that children reach specific milestones, keep in mind that these are general average ages that research has found children develop these skills. In reality, children reach milestones across a wide range of ages. Sometimes children will appear to even skip an entire developmental stage in some channels as they advance quickly in a short amount of time.

Also keep in mind that there are some situations in which children become severely inhibited and unable to reach certain milestones within an acceptable time frame. Developmental delays in a child’s functioning caused by disease, injury, mental disability, problems developing in the womb, environmental reasons, trauma or unknown causes can keep some children from developing properly or can even cause children to regress and go backward into some stages in some channels.

Sensitive periods in child development
In order to understand how children move between stages, it’s important to understand how children take in stimuli from the environment and use it to grow. Most theorists agree that there are periods in children’s lives in which they become biologically mature enough to gain certain skills that they could not have easily picked up prior to that maturation. For example, research has shown that babies and toddlers’ brains are more flexible with regard to learning to understand and use language than are older children’s brains.

Children are ready and open to develop certain things during specific stages; however, it doesn’t just happen. Instead, they need proper environmental stimuli to develop these abilities. For example, babies have the ability to grow in length and weight in amazing amounts during the first year, but if they’re not fed and nurtured enough during that time, they will not have the tools and building blocks to grow and will not grow and thrive. This is why it’s so important for parents and caregivers to understand how their children are growing in all ways and channels and to know what stimuli, or stuff, they need to give their children to help them thrive.

From time to time children without any cognitive or physical problems at birth may not be able to develop certain milestones during the stage or time period they are most receptive. There may be an injury, illness, caregiver neglect or abuse, or a shortage of needs such as food or medical care, that make it difficult for a child to absorb all the basic building blocks and stimulation they need to gain certain abilities at certain times in life. When this occurs, affected children will generally have a harder time gaining those abilities even if they later get special attention and resources designed to help them compensate. It’s like children have a window of opportunity when they are ready to grow in certain ways if they have the right stuff and tools in their environment. When that window closes, it will never be as easy to grow in those ways again. Theorists disagree about how important it is for children to have those special stimuli at each growing stage in order to reach their milestones. Some theorists call these times critical periods, but other theorists call them sensitive periods.

The difference between critical periods and sensitive periods is subtle. Theorists who believe in critical periods believe that children who do not get special stimulation during their window of receptivity are going to be “stuck” forever and never gain the abilities they should have gained in that period. However, other theorists believe that those very sensitive times in a child’s life are just sensitive periods. They agree that children who do not get the right nurturing at the right times to jumpstart their developmental potential are going to have problems later in life, but they do not think that this inability to develop is permanent.

For example, infancy is the time when children first learn they can trust an adult or parent to take care of all their needs, keep them safe, and give them love. Some infants live in orphanages where there are far too many babies for the few nurses and staff members to take care of them. These children go through their first years with hardly any touch or affection that would teach them to trust and to show affection to caregivers. If these children are eventually adopted by a loving family later on in their childhood, they often have trouble adjusting to having an affectionate, loving parent. There have been many cases in which children who start out in that kind of orphanage environment never gain the ability to show affection and emotion toward family or even the ability to show remorse or compassion toward other people, no matter how loving and nurturing their adoptive family was being in their middle childhood and on. Such a child’s ability to trust and love would have essentially become “stuck” in infancy, even though the rest of their body continued to grow. The question of whether the critical period idea or the sensitive period idea is more correct boils down to whether this stuckness can be overcome, in full or in part, in the child’s later life.

Theorists who support sensitive periods believe that while it will be far more difficult for the child and the child’s teachers and caregivers to learn what was not learned during the window of opportunity, these children can still develop the missing capacities and skills later that they did not develop earlier. While some children do seem to get stuck permanently, there is evidence to support the sensitive period idea as well.

Some children born in the same understaffed orphanages who are later adopted do go on to learn to love, to trust, and to show affection to their family and friends. In these situations, the families have to have extreme patience and perseverance as they nurture these older children because they are not going to be able to learn that trust and love as fast and as easily as infants.

However, it’s also important to remember that critical or sensitive periods can also affect children in other ways than just neglect or deprivation. For example, there is a critical or sensitive period for language acquisition that occurs during infancy. Children begin learning how to understand and create language from the time they’re born. They will absorb and copy the language they hear all around them during that critical or sensitive period early in life. However, for many different reasons, children, and adults, may leave their original home and move to a new country or region where people speak a different language. They will need to learn to understand and create the new language, even though they were not exposed to it during that early important period. However, while it will take more time and special tutoring, many children, and adults, can learn a new language proficiently later in life. (Different parts of the brain are used for sensitive period learning, vs. later learning, but both can get the job done)

MAJOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES AND THEORISTS
Though many scientists and researchers have approached the study of child development over the last hundred or so many years, only a few of the theories that have resulted have stood the test of time and have proven to be widely influential. Among this core group of theories are five that will serve as the basis for the documents in this book. These are:

  1. Freud’s psychosexual stage theory
  2. Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory
  3. Kohlberg’s moral understanding stage theory
  4. Piaget’s cognitive development stage theory
  5. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory

Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages of development theory

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Viennese doctor who came to believe that the way parents dealt with children’s basic sexual and aggressive desires would determine how their personalities developed and whether or not they would end up well-adjusted as adults. Freud described children as going through multiple stages of sexual development, which he labeled Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital.
In Freud’s view, each stage focused on sexual activity and the pleasure received from a particular area of the body. In the oral phase, children are focused on the pleasures that they receive from sucking and biting with their mouth. In the Anal phase, this focus shifts to the anus as they begin toilet training and attempt to control their bowels. In the Phallic stage, the focus moves to genital stimulation and the sexual identification that comes with having or not having a penis.

During this phase, Freud thought that children turn their interest and love toward their parent of the opposite sex and begin to strongly resent the parent of the same sex. He called this idea the Oedipus complex as it closely mirrored the events of an ancient Greek tragic play in which a king named Oedipus manages to marry his mother and kill his father. The Phallic/Oedipus stage was thought to be followed by a period of Latency during which sexual urges and interest were temporarily nonexistent. Finally, children were thought to enter and remain in a final Genital stage in which adult sexual interests and activities come to dominate.

Another part of Freud’s theory focused on identifying the parts of consciousness. Freud thought that all babies are initially dominated by unconscious, instinctual and selfish urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the Id. As babies attempt and fail to get all their whims met, they develop a more realistic appreciation of what is realistic and possible, which Freud called the “Ego”. Over time, babies also learn about and come to internalize and represent their parents’ values and rules. These internalized rules, which he called the “Super-Ego”, are the basis for the developing child’s conscience that struggles with the concepts of right and wrong and works with the Ego to control the immediate gratification urges of the Id.

By today’s rigorous scientific standards, Freud’s psychosexual theory is not considered to be very accurate. However, it is still important and influential today because it was the first stage development theory that gained real attention, and many other theorists used it as a starting place.

Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory

Erik Erikson (1902-1994) used Freud’s work as a starting place to develop a theory about human stage development from birth to death. In contrast to Freud’s focus on sexuality, Erikson focused on how peoples’ sense of identity develops; how people develop or fail to develop abilities and beliefs about themselves which allow them to become productive, satisfied members of society. Because Erikson’s theory combines how people develop beliefs psychologically and mentally with how they learn to exist within a larger community of people, it’s called a ‘psychosocial’ theory.

Erikson’s stages are, in chronological order in which they unfold: trust versus mistrust; autonomy versus shame and doubt; initiative versus guilt; industry versus inferiority; identity versus identity confusion; intimacy versus isolation; generativity versus stagnation; and integrity versus despair. Each stage is associated with a time of life and a general age span. For each stage, Erikson’s theory explains what types of stimulation children need to master that stage and become productive and well-adjusted members of society and explains the types of problems and developmental delays that can result when this stimulation does not occur.

For example, the first psychosocial stage is trust versus mistrust, and it spans from birth to about age one year. During this phase, if children are consistently provided all their basic needs such as food, clean diapers, warmth, and loving affection and soothing from caregivers, they will learn that they can trust other people in their environment to love them and to take care of them, and they will believe the world is good. If infants are neglected and not given these things consistently or if they are taken care of roughly and unpredictably, they will learn to question their caretakers and to believe that others will not always be there to support them when it’s needed.

Learning to trust others is the first necessary step to learning how to have loving, supportive relationships with others and to have a positive self-image.
The second stage, autonomy versus shame and doubt, spans ages one to three years. When children are autonomous, they feel confident that they can make their own choices and decisions and that they will be positive experiences. Young children become autonomous when caregivers are supportive and give children the safe space to make their own decisions and to experiment with their bodies and problem-solving skills without shaming or ridiculing the child. When children feel shame and doubt, they believe that they are not capable of making valid decisions and not capable of doing everyday tasks. This will begin stunting a positive self-esteem as these small children start seeing themselves as “stupid.”

The third stage, initiative versus guilt, spans ages three to six years. When children develop initiative, they continue to develop their self-concept and gain a desire to try new things and to learn new things while being responsible for their actions to some extent. If caregivers continue to give children a safe space to experiment and appropriate stimuli to learn, the children will continue to find their purpose. However, if caregivers try to create too many strict boundaries around what children can do and to force too much responsibility on kids, children will feel extreme guilt for their inability to complete tasks perfectly.
This is just a taste of Erickson’s ideas. Hopefully, these paragraphs will help explain his way of thinking and organizing development. The rest of Erikson’s stages will be outlined in detail in future documents in this book as they become age-related.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral understanding stage theory

Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) described three stages of moral development which described the process through which people learn to discriminate right from wrong and to develop increasingly sophisticated appreciations of morality. He believed that his stages were cumulative; each built off understanding and abilities gained in prior stages. According to Kohlberg, moral development is a lifelong task, and many people fail to develop the more advanced stages of moral understanding.

Kohlberg’s first ‘preconventional’ level describes children whose understanding of morality is essentially only driven by consequences. Essentially, “might makes right” to a preconventional mind, and they worry about what is right in wrong so they don’t get in trouble. Second stage ‘conventional’ morality describes people who act in moral ways because they believe that following the rules is the best way to promote good personal relationships and a healthy community. A conventional morality person believes it is wrong to steal not just because he doesn’t want to get punished but also because he doesn’t want his friends or family to be harmed.

The final ‘post conventional’ level describes people whose view of morality transcend what the rules or laws say. Instead of just following rules without questioning them, ‘post conventional’ stage people determine what is moral based on a set of values or beliefs they think are right all the time. For example, during the Vietnam War, many Americans who were drafted to be soldiers opposed the war on moral grounds and fled to Canada rather than fight. Even though this behavior was against the law, these people decided that these particular laws did not follow the higher rules they believed in, and they chose to follow their higher rules instead of the law.

Jean Piaget’s cognitive development stage theory

Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1990), created a cognitive-developmental stage theory that described how children’s ways of thinking developed as they interacted with the world around them. Infants and young children understand the world much differently than adults do, and as they play and explore, their mind learns how to think in ways that better fit with reality.

Piaget’s theory has four stages: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. During the Sensorimotor stage, which often lasts from birth to age two, children are just beginning to learn how to learn. Though language development, and thus thought, does begin during this time, the more major tasks occurring during this period involve children figuring out how to make use of their bodies. They do this by experiencing everything with their five senses, hence “sensory,” and by learning to crawl and then walk point and then grasp, hence, “motor.”
During the preoperational stage, which often lasts from ages two though seven, children start to use mental symbols to understand and to interact with the world, and they begin to learn language and to engage in pretend play. In the concrete operational stage that follows, lasting from ages seven through eleven, children gain the ability to think logically to solve problems and to organize information they learn. However, they remain limited to considering only concrete, not abstract, information because at this stage the capability for abstract thought isn’t well developed yet. Finally, during the formal operational stage, which often lasts from age eleven on, adolescents learn how to think more abstractly to solve problems and to think symbolically, e.g., about things that aren’t really there concretely in front of them. As is the case with Erikson and Kohlberg, Piaget’s ideas will be developed in greater depth in future documents.

Urie Bronfenbrenner ecological system theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) developed the ecological systems theory to explain how everything in a child and the child’s environment affects how a child grows and develops.
He labeled different aspects or levels of the environment that influence children’s development, including the:

  1. Microsystem.
  2. Mesosystem.
  3. Exosystem.
  4. Macrosystem.
  5. The Microsystem

The Microsystem is the small, immediate environment the child lives in. Children’s Microsystems will include any immediate relationships or organizations they interact with, such as their immediate family or caregivers and their school or daycare.

How these groups or organizations interact with the child will have an effect on how the child grows; the more encouraging and nurturing these relationships and places are, the better the child will be able to grow.

Furthermore, how a child acts or reacts to these people in the Microsystem will affect how they treat her in return. Each child’s special genetic and biologically influenced personality traits, what is known as temperament, end up affecting how others treat them. This idea will be discussed further in later chapters about child temperament.

The Mesosystem
Bronfenbrenner’s next level, the Mesosystem, describes how the different parts of a child’s Microsystem work together for the sake of the child.
For example, if a child’s caregivers take an active role in a child’s school, such as going to parent-teacher conferences and watching their child’s soccer games, this will help ensure the child’s overall growth. In contrast, if the child’s two sets of caretakers, mom with step-dad and dad with step-mom, disagree how to best raise the child and give the child
Conflicting lessons when they see him, this will hinder the child’s growth in different channels.

The Exosystem
The Exosystem level includes the other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large affect on her, such as parents’ workplaces, extended family members, the neighborhood, etc.
For example, if a child’s parent gets laid off from work, that may have negative effects on the child if her parents are unable to pay rent or to buy groceries; however, if her parent receives a promotion and a raise at work, this may have a positive effect on the child because her parents will be better able to give her physical needs.

The Macro system
Bronfenbrenner’s final level is the macro system, which is the largest and most remote set of people and things to a child but which still has a great influence over the child .
The Macrosystem includes things such as the relative freedoms permitted by the national government, cultural values, the economy, wars, etc. These things can also affect a child either positively or negatively.

Conclusion.
All of these theorists’ ideas will influence and inspire the coming chapters in this book the chapters will concern child development, both from theoretical perspectives, and also from applied perspectives, in the form of parenting skills coverage. Chapters cover four stages of child development, defined for the purpose of this book to be:
Infancy (covering birth to age two)
Early Childhood (covering ages two to seven)
Middle Childhood (covering ages seven to eleven)
Adolescence (covering ages eleven to twenty-two)

This breakdown of ages provides rough correspondence with the stage theories of Piaget, Erikson, and Bronfenbrenner too. Within each stage, a ‘theory’ document will describe how development typically proceeds through the major developmental channels, including physical, mental, emotional and social, and sexual developments. A second ‘applied’ document will address appropriate parenting skills in light of what is known about children’s development within each stage.
It’s important to remember that while these documents will make general statements about when developments occur in a child’s life, each child will nevertheless develop at his or her own speed, and that even within a given child, certain channels may progress faster than others. For example, a twelve-year-old may have the physical growth and change of an adolescent but mentally still be in the concrete operational stage. This is normal because often one aspect of a child’s being will mature faster than another. Most of the time, given the right nurturing and stimuli, everything will catch up in the end.

These ages are just an average and should be looked at as a general guide rather than a rule. When babies are in infancy, they are changing from being totally dependent on caregivers to learning to walk, to talk, to play alongside others, and are realizing they are their individual selves. When children enter early childhood, they continue to improve their large and small motor skills as they run and move more smoothly. They also grow mentally and socially as they enter school and other places where they interact with children. During middle childhood, children continue to grow and improve physically, while also growing mentally as they attend school. They maintain friendships in large same-sex groups and begin forming ideas about gender roles and jobs. During adolescence, people go through puberty as their bodies mature and become capable to reproduce. Teens attempt to assert their individual identity while still needing rules and limits to continue to help them make good life decisions. During later adolescence, young adults begin the tasks of finding a life calling or job and of finding or creating their own next-generation family.
Even more milestones and more in-depth information will be explained in future
Chapters. Hopefully, they will give you the tools that as a caregiver you need to give your children the best possible basis to grow and to succeed

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Best of the Best Parenting Books recommended, this Book hitted

How to talk so kids will losten and listen so kids will talk, by Adele Faber and Elaine Mazlish, Siblings without Rivalry by Adele faber and Elaine Mazlish, Peaceful parent, Happy Kids by Dr. Laura Markham, Playful Parenting, by Lawrence J Cohen, Unconditional Parenting by Alfie Kohn, Toddler Discipline For Every age and stage by Aubrey Hargis, The whole Brain child by Daniel J. Siegel and Tina payne Bryson, No drama discipline by Daniel J Siegel and Tina Payne Bryson. Two year old by Louise Bates Ames, Becoming attached by Robert Karen, All joy and No fun by Jennifer Senior, When pattners become parents by Carolyn pape Cowan and Phillip A cowan, Simplicity Parenting by Kim John Payne, The child, The Family and the outside world by D. W. Winnicott, No Bad Kids by Janet Lansbury, Second Shift by Arlie Hochschild, The drama of the Gifted Child by Alice Miller, Queen Bees wannabes by Rosalind Wiseman, How to hug a porcupine by Julie A. Ross, M. A, Unequal Childhoods by Annet Lareau, Super Nomal by Meg Jay, The body keeps the Score by Bessel Van der kolk, The gardener and the carpenter by Alison Gopnik, Philosophical Baby by Alison Gopnik.

All these books are good, really classy but all has one common thing, they are specific to one or two stages of development, Kids, or Toddlers.

Then this book Make me Understand Family, Parenting and health, written by Lukonge Achilees, is the only book ever written by a black Author that can have a space in all those books mentioned above, really it comes in number 15

Many things that can place this book over the others namely,

It is comprehensive, gives you the content you need to raise and parent from Infant to Adolescence, no book covers all the stages, well and in good simple English good to understand, it has 776 pages.

It is written like a novel, Author takes you into a journey of parenting without skiping a single stage, written in a story like, not boring, very entertaining filled with examples and illustrations well printed in coloured. and is very educative.

The Book Content

From the Author

Book description, Why he wrote this book.

Are you eager to know more about the Author, Worry not.

This book has insightful step by step guide that show you what you can do and expect from Child development and parenting Infants 0-2 year, Child development and parenting Early Childhood, Child development and Parenting 3-7 years, Child development and parenting Midle childhood, 8-11 year, Child development and parenting Adolescents 13-24 years, and the last part of Children and Internet addiction in families.

The Author start showing you simple tips that can give you a hook to the journey of the book.

Tips illustrated by Author

Grab Your Copy from Amazon, Make a review and Recommend it to your friend.

http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/18509557.Lukonge_Achilees

Call +256757001147 +256785435407

Email: archileeslukonge@gmail.com

To Rema and all Ladies out their, understand when to let go.

I know Rema lost the battle at unexpected moment. I know there could be many reasons as to why she surrendered, those we could mimic, and those we dont know.

But, according to what Kenzo wrote yesterday in the last lines of his fairwell separation letter to Rema Namakula said,

“Yogayoga (Congratulations) Mr. Sebunya, yagala Rema, (Love Rema) your a man of her dreams, your the reason why she made such a big decision. She is living her dreams”

When you quote that statement, you could get answers , to me, Rema played a big role toward breakup, she had someone special she felt and liked to marry in future. But Kenzo was still loving her, to me he only lacked some basics that explain what marriage is, what you should do etc, this might be because of his young age and fame and popularity, since he raised his music talent at young age to become international star.

Rema being a top female musician in Uganda, she had dreams, She married Eddy Kenzo not because of love, not because they share same characters and personality, not because he was man of her dreams but Fame and popularity of Eddy Kenzo.

Rema played on minds of Ugandans, seeking attention for us to feel pitty for her about her relationship with Kenzo, she behaved as if Kenzo is Bad, dont love her, dont take care of her, dont give her time, she even expressed her feelings in her top hits like “Sirimuyembe” (iam not a mango that you wait to ripe). She did all that, to play kenzo victim in their relationship to pave way for her separation to meet the man of her dreams

All in all, they finally separated, but let ask ourselves, when and how to know its time to let go?

You cannot force yourself to let go, no matter how much you know you want to.

You cannot force something out of your brain space, no matter how much you don’t want it to be there.

You cannot just simply loosen your grip and relax a little and will yourself to stop thinking entirely about something around which your entire world used to orbit.

This is not how it goes.

You are not going to let go the moment someone tells you to “move on,” the day you realize you have to admit certain defeat, the heart-dropping second it occurs to you that hope is, indeed, futile.

You do not let go by simply willing yourself not to care anymore. This is something that people who have never been really, really hung up on something think. This is something that people who have never been deeply attached to something for a sense of safety and security and love and their future believe.

There is nothing wrong with you because you almost get angry when people tell you to just “let go” so nonchalantly, as though they couldn’t fathom the storms in your head and heart.

How can you become so passive about something you have spent so much of your time, and your life, actively working to maintain and restore?

You can’t.

You don’t.

You start to let go the day you take one step toward building a new life, and then let yourself lay and stare at the ceiling and cry for as many hours as you need.

You start to let go the day you realize that you cannot continue to revolve around a missing gap in your life, and going on as you were before will simply not be an option.

You start to let go the moment you realize that this is the impetus, this is the catalyst, this is that moment the movies are made about and the books are written around and songs are inspired by.

This is the moment you realize that you will never find peace standing in the ruins of what you used to be.

You can only move on if you start building something new.

You let go when you build a new life so immersive and engaging and exciting, you slowly, over time, forget about the past.

When we try to force ourselves to “let go” of something, we grip onto it tighter, and harder, and more passionately than ever before. It’s like if someone tells you to not think of a white elephant; that’s the only thing you’ll be able to focus on.

Our hearts work the same way as our minds in this regard. As long as we are telling ourselves that we must let go, the more deeply we feel attached.

So don’t tell yourself to let go.

Instead, tell yourself that you can cry for as long as you need. That you can fall to pieces and be a mess and let your life collapse and crumble. Tell yourself that you can let you foundation fall through.

What you will realize is that you are still standing.

What you build in the wake and the aftermath of loss will be so profound, so stunning, you will realize that maybe, the loss was part of the plan. Maybe it awakened a part of you that would have remained dormant had you not been pushed the way you were.

If you are certain that you cannot let go of what is hurting you, then don’t.

But take one step today, and then another tomorrow, to rebuild a new life for yourself. Piece by piece, day by day.

Because sooner or later, you’re going to go an hour and realize you didn’t think about them, or it. Then a day, then a week… and then years and swaths of your life drift by and everything you thought would break you becomes a distant memory, something you look back at and smile.

Everything you lose becomes something you are profoundly grateful for. With time, you see that it was not the path. It was what was standing in your way.

For you guys out there who take your spouse for granted.

Break ups are hard. Really hard. So much so that sometimes you end up questioning the decision to break up in the first place. And then, suddenly, without meaning to, you’re standing there with a bleeding heart and a blank text message addressed to him asking the golden question :

Should I get back together with him?,

Therefore, People Like Eddy Kenzo, Musuuza and other guys out there…. You should know:

Taking your spouse for granted and having no time for each other is a sure-fire way to have marriage fatigue set in. All too often when a marriage gets stale, people turn to extramarital affairs to spice up their humdrum life, and the 10 million married people outed by my research and experience, proves my point.

I’m stunned by many of my clents’ excuses as to why they have no time, desire, or energy to make love to their spouses. In no uncertain terms I respond, “It’s your job to keep your marriage partner from the temptations of the world. If you’re not making love to your spouse, someone out their will gladly do it for you.”

The good news is that with a little ingenuity monogamy doesn’t have to mean monotony.
If your love life has gotten a little stale lately, and you need to infuse some new life into it, why not try scheduling an affair with your spouse to spice things up?

Set aside an evening or a weekend on a regular basis where the two of you get dressed to the nines and wine and dine each other. Smartphones are banned from the table. Sit and talk and get to know each other all over again. Look each other in the eyes. Hold hands. Flirt with each other. Romance and seduce each other. Stop assuming that you know everything about your spouse. After dinner, check into a motel. Take your time and don’t rush things. Allow plenty of time for massages, caressing, and kissing. Allow time for cocooning afterwards. Cocooning is the art of deliberately locking the world away, so two lovers can timelessly and intimately embrace, energize, and enjoy each other. Bask in the afterglow of lovemaking by talking, touching, kissing, and hugging.

How many times have you saw these couple really show that they are in serious relationship?

Women needs love, much attention and care, they need your presence so its good to balance your musical journey, work and family, money is nothing when there is no love.

So, always,

Remember to schedule your affair in the day or early evening, so that you’re not too tired for post-sex intimacy. Wait, you can’t afford this? Need I remind you that a divorce is going to cost you a lot more in the long run, and if you let the flame of passion burn out in your relationship, divorce might one day become a very real scenario; so look at this expenditure as money well spent and good investment in your financial future.

Thanks from me, Counselor MRU.

Still confused? These are Main Reasons why you should major Social Work

Ask a social worker for the reason they chose the social work profession and the standard answer is “I want to help people.” I think this is the expected answer. This is what the person asking wants to hear because it validates their impression of social workers and social work. Social workers are soft, bleeding hearts, want to save the world types. Their impression is read on their faces and in their tone as they respond, “Oh, well, that must be very rewarding.” Then the subject changes.

None of us would dare say we went into social work to make money. That statement would probably send listeners into a fit of hysterical, belly laughter. As a matter of fact, we would probably start laughing before finishing the sentence. No one, however, would laugh if a doctor or lawyer made that statement.

I think that many of us chose social work because of the good feeling that we get when we help someone. There are other reasons, as well, based on our skills, abilities and interests. Some chose the profession because of strong problem solving abilities. Others chose the profession because of exceptional analytical skills. Still others chose social work because of their proficiencies in verbal and written communication.

Do our skills have a positive influence on others? Yes! Does our collective ability create a powerful force in the community around us? Absolutely

Social Work is a rewarding and important subject area, and individuals who are sufficiently trained are essential to help the well-being of the community and beyond. If you’re wondering whether Social Work is the degree for you, here are reasons why it is:

You will learn how to make a positive impact

Social Work is all about understanding and striving to improve the lives of people in society. Social workers listen to peoples’ needs, from young children to people struggling with addictions, and help them to cope and improve their happiness. You could be making a different person’s life easier every day.

2. There are many job options

A degree in Social Work provides students with the ability to undertake a variety of different professional roles. These roles include working as a probation officer, a charity officer and a family support worker.

3. Every day is likely to be different
If you’re not interested in a career sat behind a computer all day, then Social Work can offer a more exciting option. Different situations arise everyday, and social workers can find themselves in many different settings from hospitals to homes to police departments.

4. Graduate starting salaries are good
If you want to be a social worker, then a degree will put you in a better position for a strong starting salary than without.

5. You can gain transferrable skills
After studying Social Work you may decide that a profession directly related to the subject area is not for you. Skills that are developed through Social Work courses will be valued by many employers in different sectors, however. These skills include communicating, problem solving, empathy, team work and time management.

6. The world needs social workers
There will always be people in need, so there will always be a demand for those who are educated in the subject area, meaning jobs shouldn’t be too difficult to find

7. You want to help others.

Social work gives you a professional platform with which to engage your inner helper. An MSW degree will allow you to help people from all walks of life with all kinds of problem.

8. You have deep insights about people and about what makes them tick.

You’re interested in feelings and behavior. You’re perceptive about what motivates people. You often empower others to be their best selves, and you find that work rewarding.

9. You had a rough childhood, or went through a challenging period of time yourself.

Many social workers enter the profession after personally experiencing some adversity. Some survived difficult circumstances and now want to help people in similar positions. Others want to continue their journeys of overcoming as part of their day-to-day jobs. As long as your career doesn’t become a never-ending odyssey of self-help, you’ll find yourself in the company of other professionals whose personal paths are similarly intertwined with social work.

10. You need to live a purpose-driven life.

Sure, some of your friends are off to glamorous careers or riches. But those things won’t satisfy you. You need a sense of meaning and a job that makes an impact in order to to feel fulfilled. Even if that job is less financially rewarding than some others.

11. The principles and values of social work line up with your own.

You may have been raised to believe in the good of others, or in doing good work yourself. Perhaps you want to live an ethics-driven life of integrity. As licensed professionals, social workers are not just do-gooders; they adhere to a high level of standards and ethics.

12. Your excited by all the career posibilities.

According to Survey of social work is projected to grow by 16 percent over the next decade. That figure leaves a lot of other professions in the dust, and positions you for numerous employment opportunities. You could start off in the medical social work field, for example, and switch to doing counseling, and then go into administration or return to case management. As a social worker, you have the option to reinvent yourself while staying true to your profession — whether you’re helping someone with housing, victim rights, or hospice care.

13. You are committed to social justice.

Becoming a mover and shaker is in your blood. You possess a sensitivity to those who are marginalized and victimized. You won’t stop until the inequities in the world are righted.

14. Social Work has broad applications for other fields. Licensed social workers are positioned to work in many fields and organizations, not just in healthcare. Some non-traditional areas of social work include tech, human resources, fundraising, philanthropic giving, diversity leadership, and college consulting. This degree gives BIG career options.

15. You need to be engaged and feel alive in the work you do.

A mundane desk job just won’t cut it for someone with your energy.

16. You’re not just compassionate, you’re resilient and resourceful.

Doing whatever is necessary to get the job done is your signature style. In the face of adversity, you are steely and strong. And you know how to stand up to injustice

Still confused? These are Main Reasons why you should major Social Work

Ask a social worker for the reason they chose the social work profession and the standard answer is “I want to help people.” I think this is the expected answer. This is what the person asking wants to hear because it validates their impression of social workers and social work. Social workers are soft, bleeding hearts, want to save the world types. Their impression is read on their faces and in their tone as they respond, “Oh, well, that must be very rewarding.” Then the subject changes.

None of us would dare say we went into social work to make money. That statement would probably send listeners into a fit of hysterical, belly laughter. As a matter of fact, we would probably start laughing before finishing the sentence. No one, however, would laugh if a doctor or lawyer made that statement.

I think that many of us chose social work because of the good feeling that we get when we help someone. There are other reasons, as well, based on our skills, abilities and interests. Some chose the profession because of strong problem solving abilities. Others chose the profession because of exceptional analytical skills. Still others chose social work because of their proficiencies in verbal and written communication.

Do our skills have a positive influence on others? Yes! Does our collective ability create a powerful force in the community around us? Absolutely

Social Work is a rewarding and important subject area, and individuals who are sufficiently trained are essential to help the well-being of the community and beyond. If you’re wondering whether Social Work is the degree for you, here are reasons why it is:

You will learn how to make a positive impact

Social Work is all about understanding and striving to improve the lives of people in society. Social workers listen to peoples’ needs, from young children to people struggling with addictions, and help them to cope and improve their happiness. You could be making a different person’s life easier every day.

2. There are many job options

A degree in Social Work provides students with the ability to undertake a variety of different professional roles. These roles include working as a probation officer, a charity officer and a family support worker.

3. Every day is likely to be different
If you’re not interested in a career sat behind a computer all day, then Social Work can offer a more exciting option. Different situations arise everyday, and social workers can find themselves in many different settings from hospitals to homes to police departments.

4. Graduate starting salaries are good
If you want to be a social worker, then a degree will put you in a better position for a strong starting salary than without.

5. You can gain transferrable skills
After studying Social Work you may decide that a profession directly related to the subject area is not for you. Skills that are developed through Social Work courses will be valued by many employers in different sectors, however. These skills include communicating, problem solving, empathy, team work and time management.

6. The world needs social workers
There will always be people in need, so there will always be a demand for those who are educated in the subject area, meaning jobs shouldn’t be too difficult to find

7. You want to help others.

Social work gives you a professional platform with which to engage your inner helper. An MSW degree will allow you to help people from all walks of life with all kinds of problem.

8. You have deep insights about people and about what makes them tick.

You’re interested in feelings and behavior. You’re perceptive about what motivates people. You often empower others to be their best selves, and you find that work rewarding.

9. You had a rough childhood, or went through a challenging period of time yourself.

Many social workers enter the profession after personally experiencing some adversity. Some survived difficult circumstances and now want to help people in similar positions. Others want to continue their journeys of overcoming as part of their day-to-day jobs. As long as your career doesn’t become a never-ending odyssey of self-help, you’ll find yourself in the company of other professionals whose personal paths are similarly intertwined with social work.

10. You need to live a purpose-driven life.

Sure, some of your friends are off to glamorous careers or riches. But those things won’t satisfy you. You need a sense of meaning and a job that makes an impact in order to to feel fulfilled. Even if that job is less financially rewarding than some others.

11. The principles and values of social work line up with your own.

You may have been raised to believe in the good of others, or in doing good work yourself. Perhaps you want to live an ethics-driven life of integrity. As licensed professionals, social workers are not just do-gooders; they adhere to a high level of standards and ethics.

12. Your excited by all the career posibilities.

According to Survey of social work is projected to grow by 16 percent over the next decade. That figure leaves a lot of other professions in the dust, and positions you for numerous employment opportunities. You could start off in the medical social work field, for example, and switch to doing counseling, and then go into administration or return to case management. As a social worker, you have the option to reinvent yourself while staying true to your profession — whether you’re helping someone with housing, victim rights, or hospice care.

13. You are committed to social justice.

Becoming a mover and shaker is in your blood. You possess a sensitivity to those who are marginalized and victimized. You won’t stop until the inequities in the world are righted.

14. Social Work has broad applications for other fields. Licensed social workers are positioned to work in many fields and organizations, not just in healthcare. Some non-traditional areas of social work include tech, human resources, fundraising, philanthropic giving, diversity leadership, and college consulting. This degree gives BIG career options.

15. You need to be engaged and feel alive in the work you do.

A mundane desk job just won’t cut it for someone with your energy.

16. You’re not just compassionate, you’re resilient and resourceful.

Doing whatever is necessary to get the job done is your signature style. In the face of adversity, you are steely and strong. And you know how to stand up to injustice

Our Three Years of University life that hold endless Joyful memories. By Lukonge Achilees

I went back to my University on Tuesday 11th June 2019 few months ago after being invited to participate on the event of instalation of Vice Chancellor of MRU Prof. Vicent Kakembo and to talk to soon-to-be graduates and a wave of nostalgia slammed into my chest. Looking at the main entrance where, Five years ago, I stood for the first time, entranced by the possibilities it represented, I smiled a little. I thought of that 18-year-old walking through those doors for the first time, his backpack strapped securely in place with at least 10 highlighters inside, ready to take on his first University class and start the path to his life.

Walking through campus that day as a grown man, memories came flooding back. Good memories, hard memories, and memories we made together.

Even though I’m happy where I am in life, it made me a little sad to think those days are long gone and life has moved on.
It made me sad that all those moments slipped away so fast.
It made me sad that I didn’t even realize what I’d be missing.

Social workers infront of administration block.

It’s been Two years since we took that graduation day picture in front of the main administration block, two twenty-somethings ready to take on the world. We’d met during the formative years of our lives, three small-town boys who happened to sit near each other in our first university class, and other 20 colleages.

We grew inseparable over laughter and stories about girls, over classes that put us to sleep and classes that made us want to cry.

Three years. It seems like an eternity, yet at the same time it feels like these years have passed by in the blink of an eye. It wasn’t just the sheer amount of time we spent together—it was the fact that these were the most transitional, impactful, life-altering three years of our existence. In three years, we’ve seen each other at our very best and, inevitably, at our very worst.

From day one, we saw each other through every up and down on life’s greatest emotional roller coasters. From being heartbroken, to falling in love, to even falling in love with the ones who broke our hearts—we were there for each other with advice, hugs, moral support, tissue boxes and of course, plenty of laughs.

For three years, we laughed, cried, and trudged through the exhaustion that is university life.
At the time, all we could think about was getting out and moving on. We talked about dreams and how we couldn’t wait to start life. Those three years seemed like a stopping point or like a purgatory before we could get to the real parts of life, the good parts.

hen there was the anxiety of selecting a path for our futures. Sometimes we changed our minds, like myself i changed from Education to Social sciences, sometimes we second-guessed our decisions and sometimes we just sought reassurance for the path we were already on. No matter how impossible it all seemed, we were in it together.

Everyone told us college goes fast and we’d miss it, but we didn’t listen. We were in such a hurry to grow up and move on. We complained and moaned and whined about our exhaustion. We couldn’t wait to take the last exams, write the last papers, and say goodbye to those years.

Now those inside jokes we made and those moments we had are faded memories. We’ve grown up. We’ve traded our weekly frozen mocha runs for the doldrums of adult life. We traded meticulous study sessions of Mr. Luttamaguzi Johnbosco we’ve long forgotten for 40-hrs of work.

We still talk, and we still share our laughs. But the laughs are fewer and farther between because we’re busy now, busier than we ever thought was possible during our university years. We’re busy living life, and we don’t have time to laugh about funny Luswata Shafik’s Jokes, Mario Akatusasira wierd Statements, Erumbi Ritah’s Adult comic jockes with Uncle Ssembatya Deo, Mr. Luttamaguzi’s happiest Lectures, Mr. Lwanga’s Craze actions and talks, or go on crazy field trips like Nabugabo Sand Beach, Mbarara and on sad events like Funerals or make up ridiculous dances in Club Ambience.

Standing there on that day where we used to sit and talk about tomorrow, discuss about papers and coursework, I wish we’d have held those moments a little tighter, grasped the moments a little harder.
I wish we hadn’t let go so easily. I wish I’d known when we said goodbye on graduation day, we’d miss that time more than words could explain. I wish we’d have taken a little longer to soak it all in.

I wish we’d known the time we felt rebellious for talking to each other would be something we’d laugh about later. I wish we’d known that those moments of laughing until we cried on our crazy field trips would be things that would make us smile and miss who we used to be.

I wish we’d have known it would all go too fast, and those moments were good moments to cling to, even if they were in the midst of sleep deprivation and uncertainty.

ut we didn’t know. How could we have known?

They weren’t great years because of a lack of responsibility or because of an excess of freedom. T hey were the best years because they were the years of dreams, the years when life had so much potential and yet such simplicity, too. They were the years that we bonded over crazy hopes and uncertainties for the future. They were the years we decided who we wanted to be—and none of it felt out of reach. Reality hadn’t tainted our perfect views, and working hard made everything feel within reach. We felt like the world could be ours, and we were energized by that thought.

So on that day, standing on campus, I took a picture to remember. I took a picture in honor of all the memories we made so that I had something tangible to attach to those moments.

It took a picture to remember, but maybe I didn’t need to. We didn’t hold those moments tightly when they were happening because we didn’t know they would be important. We didn’t know they would shape us and move us into the adults we’ve become.

But now we know. Now we hold those moments tightly and appreciate a friendship, a segment of life, and the part of our journey that turned out to be more than just exhaustion and cramming for tests.

It turned out to be the foundation for who we would become and for the good moments we will laugh about for years to come.

I’ll miss each and every one of you for more reasons than I can count, but most of all, I’ll miss you because of the way we took care of each other. Looked out for each other. Loved each other, in spite of the stupid arguments or frustrations that occasionally threatened our relationship.

So, friends, I hope you know how much I love and adore you. I hope you know how much I respect each of you. I wish nothing but the best for you; you all deserve love, happiness, and friendship.
This isn’t goodbye, it’s just a “see you soon.” Nothing is ever permanent, our distance is only temporary. Friendships are like flowers, we must continue to water them so that they can grow. Our friendships have grown and blossomed, and they will continue to blossom as time goes on.

Thanks Marion Akatusasira, Kizito Abdu, Namatovu Safiina, Okot Ben, Elipu Bruno, Namagembe Doroth, Katushabe Gloria, Natulinda Prudence, Kirabo Joan, Ssembatya Deo, Matovu Steven, Luswata Shafic, Nambalirwa Diana, Waliggo Keneth, Lukonge Achilles, Kasibante Gilbert, Nakafuuma Lilian, Erumbi Ritah, Birungi Sarah, Nakabira Soadu, Precious Chloe (Shamim) and Kwagala Betty for the memories.